Neurological Sciences

, Volume 40, Issue 12, pp 2501–2507 | Cite as

Impact of opium dependency on clinical and neuropsychological indices of multiple sclerosis patients

  • Fatemeh Ayoobi
  • Reza Bidaki
  • Ali Shamsizadeh
  • Amir Moghadam-AhmadiEmail author
  • Houshang Amiri
Original Article


The aim of this study was to determine the effect of opium on clinical and neuropsychological parameters in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients with substance dependency. A cross-sectional study was conducted on MS patients in Rafsanjan, Iran. Forty opium-addict MS patients (10 males and 30 females) aged between 18 and 50 years were compared with 40 MS patients with no addiction. Word-Pair Learning, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Wisconsin Card-Sorting Test (WCST), Depression, Anxiety, Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), Fatigue, and the Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite (MSFC) were measured and compared in the two groups. The comparison of two groups showed a significant increase trait anxiety (P < 0.001), fatigue (P = 0.009) and significant decrease in the executive function (P = 0.003), MMSE (P = 0.003), and working memory (P < 0.001) in addicted MS. It indicates the better efficiency of processing in the non-addicted MS patients. The MSFC z-score also was significantly higher in the non-addicted group (P < 0.001). The opium addiction has a negative impact on the clinical and neuropsychological outcome in MS patients.


Opium Cognition Multiple sclerosis Addiction Substance dependency 



We thank the patients who participated in the study, the study-site personnel, and members of the Special Medical Center in Ali-Ebn-Abitaleb hospital in Rafsanjan, Iran.

Funding information

This study was made possible by financial and technical support of the physiology and pharmacology research center of Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences (grant no: 9/459).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Fondazione Società Italiana di Neurologia 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Non-Communicable Diseases Research CenterRafsanjan University of Medical SciencesRafsanjanIran
  2. 2.RafsanjanIran
  3. 3.Diabetes Research CenterShahid Sadoughi University of Medical SciencesYazdIran
  4. 4.Research Center of Addiction and Behavioral SciencesShahid Sadoughi University of Medical SciencesYazdIran
  5. 5.Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, School of MedicineRafsanjan University of Medical SciencesRafsanjanIran
  6. 6.Neuroscience Research Center, Institute of NeuropharmacologyKerman University of Medical SciencesKermanIran
  7. 7.Department of Radiology and Nuclear MedicineVU University Medical CenterAmsterdamThe Netherlands

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