Neurological Sciences

, Volume 40, Issue 10, pp 2045–2050 | Cite as

Normative data of the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure for Italian-speaking elementary school children

  • Massimiliano ConsonEmail author
  • Mattia Siciliano
  • Chiara Baiano
  • Isa Zappullo
  • Vincenzo Paolo Senese
  • Gabriella Santangelo
Original Article


The Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (ROCF) is a widely used neuropsychological test for the evaluation of drawing disorders in different clinical populations, and, in particular, in persons with neurodevelopmental disorders. The aim of the present study is to provide normative data for ROCF copying (ROCF-Direct copy) and drawing from memory (ROCF-Immediate recall) in Italian-speaking children. The sample consisted of 348 children (147 males and 199 females), aged 7–11 years, recruited from elementary schools in Southern Italy. Normative data were gathered from 312 participants fulfilling the inclusion criteria, and estimated centiles were obtained according to the LMS method providing normalized growth centile standards. Results showed a significant effect of age on performance in both tasks, with a steady increase of drawing accuracy, whereas participants’ gender and mean level of parental education did not exert any significant effect. Thus, normative data were stratified by age, and percentile scores were provided allowing a practical use of the ROCF for the clinical evaluation of drawing abilities in both typical and atypical children.


Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test Drawing disorders Normative data Italian-speaking children Neuropsychological assessment 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study

Supplementary material

10072_2019_3929_MOESM1_ESM.docx (17 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 16 kb)
10072_2019_3929_MOESM2_ESM.xls (164 kb)
ESM 2 (XLS 164 kb)


  1. 1.
    Lezak MD (1995) Neuropsychological assessment, 3rd edn. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Gainotti G, Trojano L (2018) Constructional apraxia. Handb Clin Neurol 151:331–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Trojano L, Conson M (2008) Visuospatial and visuoconstructive deficits. Handb Clin Neurol 88:373–391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Mervis CB, Robinson BF, Bertrand J, Morris CA, Klein-Tasman BP, Armstrong SC (2000) The Williams syndrome cognitive profile. Brain Cogn 44:604–628CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Meyer-Lindenberg A, Kohn P, Mervis CB, Kippenhan JS, Olsen RK, Morris CA, Berman KF (2004) Neural basis of genetically determined visuospatial construction deficit in Williams syndrome. Neuron 43:623–631CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Stiles J, Akshoomoff N, Haist F (2013) The development of visuospatial processing. In: Rubenstein JLR, Rakic P (eds) Comprehensive developmental neuroscience: neural circuit development and function in the brain, vol 3. Amsterdam, Elsevier, pp 271–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Rey A (1941) L’examen psychologique dans les cas d’encephalopathie traumatique. Arch Psychol 37:126–139Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Osterrieth PA (1944) Le test de copie d’une figure complexe: contribution a l’étude de la perception et de la memoire. Arch Psychol 30:206–356Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Meyers J, Meyers K (1995) Rey complex figure test under four different administration procedure. Clin Neuropsychol 9:63–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Shin MS, Park SY, Park SR, Seol SH, Kwon JS (2006) Clinical and empirical applications of the Rey-Osterrieth complex figure test. Nat Protoc 1:892–899CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Akshoomoff NA, Stiles J (1995) Developmental trends in visuospatial analysis and planning: I. copying a complex figure. Neuropsychology 9:364–377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Akshoomoff NA, Stiles J (1995) Developmental trends in visuospatial analysis and planning: II. Memory for a complex figure. Neuropsychology 9:378–389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Waber DP, Holmes JM (1985) Assessing children’s copy productions of the Rey-Osterrieth complex figure. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol 7:264–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ardila A, Rosselli M (1994) Development of language, memory, and visuospatial abilities in 5- to 12-year-old children using a neuropsychological battery. Dev Neuropsychol 10:97–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Waber DP, Holmes JM (1986) Assessing children’s memory productions of the Rey-Osterrieth complex figure. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol 8:563–580CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Mahone EM, Hagelthorn KM, Cutting L et al (2002) Effects of IQ on executive function measures in children with ADHD. Child Neuropsychol 8:52–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Del Giudice E, Grossi D, Angelini R et al (2000) Spatial cognition in children. I. Development of drawing-related (visuospatial and constructional) abilities in preschool and early school years. Brain Develop 22:362–367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Watanabe K, Ogino T, Nakano K, Hattori J, Kado Y, Sanada S, Ohtsuka Y (2005) The Rey-Osterrieth complex figure as a measure of executive function in children. Brain Develop 27:564–569CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Akshoomoff NA, Feroleto CC, Doyle RE, Stiles J (2002) The impact of early unilateral brain injury on perceptual organization and visual memory. Neuropsychologia 40:539–561CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Arango-Lasprilla JC, Rivera D, Ertl MM, Muñoz Mancilla JM, García-Guerrero CE, Rodriguez-Irizarry W, Aguayo Arelis A, Rodríguez-Agudelo Y, Barrios Nevado MD, Vélez-Coto M, Yacelga Ponce TP, Rigabert A, García de la Cadena C, Pohlenz Amador S, Vergara-Moragues E, Soto-Añari M, Peñalver Guia AI, Saracostti Schwartzman M, Ferrer-Cascales R (2017) Rey-Osterrieth complex figure - copy and immediate recall (3 minutes): normative data for Spanish-speaking pediatric populations. NeuroRehabilitation 41:593–603CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bertolani L, De Renzi E, Faglioni P (1993) Test di memoria non verbale di impiego diagnostic in clinica: taratura su soggetti normali. Arch Psicol Neurol Psichiatr 54:477–486Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Caffarra P, Vezzadini G, Dieci F, Zonato F, Venneri A (2002) Rey-Osterrieth complex figure: normative values in an Italian population sample. Neurol Sci 22:443–447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Carlesimo GA, Buccione I, Fadda L et al (2002) Standardizzazione di due test di memoria per uso clinico: Breve Racconto e Figura di Rey. Nuova Rivista di Neurologia 12:1–13Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Pruneti CA, Fenu A, Freschi G et al (1996) Aggiornamento della standardizzazione italiana del test delle Matrici Progressive Colorate di Raven (CPM). Bollettino di Psicologia Applicata 217:51–57Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Raven J, Court JH, Raven JC (1998) Raven manual, section 1 (general overview) and section 2 (Coloured progressive matrices). Oxford Psychologist Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Rey A (1983) Reattivo della figura complessa. Manuale. Organizzazioni Speciali, FlorenceGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Mozzanica F, Salvadorini R, Sai E, Pozzoli R, Maruzzi P, Scarponi L, Barillari MR, Spada E, Ambrogi F, Schindler A (2016) Reliability, validity and normative data of the Italian version of the bus story test. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 89:17–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Cohen J (1988) Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences, 2nd edn. Lawrence Earlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, NJGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Cole TJ, Green PJ (1992) Smoothing reference centile curves: the LMS method and penalized likelihood. Stat Med 11:1305–1319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Senese VP, De Lucia N, Conson M (2015) Cognitive predictors of copying and drawing from memory of the Rey-Osterrieth complex figure in 7- to 10-year-old children. Clin Neuropsychol 29:118–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Ponton MO, Satz P, Herrera L, Ortiz F, Urrutia CP, Young R et al (1996) Normative data stratified by age and education for the neuropsychological screening battery for Hispanics (NeSBHIS): initial report. J Internat Neuropsychol Soc 2:96–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Casey BM, Dearing E, Vasilyeva M, Ganley CM, Tine M (2011) Spatial and numerical predictors of measurement performance: the moderating effects of community income and gender. J Educ Psychol 103:296–311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Verdine BN, Golinkoff RM, Hirsh-Pasek K, Newcombe NS, Filipowicz AT, Chang A (2014) Deconstructing building blocks: preschoolers’ spatial assembly performance relates to early mathematical skills. Child Develop 85:1062–1076CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Levine SC, Ratliff KR, Huttenlocher J, Cannon J (2012) Early puzzle play: a predictor of preschoolers' spatial transformation skill. Dev Psychol 48:530–542CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Levine SC, Vasilyeva M, Lourenco SF, Newcombe NS, Huttenlocher J (2005) Socioeconomic status modifies the sex difference in spatial skill. Psychol Sci 16:841–845CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Fondazione Società Italiana di Neurologia 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Developmental Neuropsychology Laboratory, Department of PsychologyUniversity of Campania Luigi VanvitelliCasertaItaly
  2. 2.Department of Medical, Surgical, Neurologic, Metabolic and Aging SciencesUniversity of Campania Luigi VanvitelliNaplesItaly

Personalised recommendations