Neurological Sciences

, Volume 40, Issue 2, pp 293–298 | Cite as

Factors associated with freezing of gait in patients with Parkinson’s disease

  • Seong-Min Choi
  • Hyun-Jung Jung
  • Geum-Jin Yoon
  • Byeong C. KimEmail author
Original Article



Freezing of gait (FOG) is a common and debilitating problem in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of FOG, and to identify factors that independently contribute to FOG in patients with PD.


We included 157 PD patients. FOG was assessed using the FOG Questionnaire (FOG-Q). Patients with or without FOG were defined as item 3 in the FOG-Q.


One hundred eleven (70.7%) out of 157 PD patients presented with FOG. Patients with FOG were older, had long disease duration, were taking higher doses of dopaminergic agents, and had higher motor and non-motor scores than those without FOG. Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that high modified Hoehn and Yahr (mHY) stage, Unified PD Rating Scale (UPDRS) part II score, and non-motor symptom assessment scale for PD (NMSS) total score were significant predictors of a high FOG-Q score. Patients with FOG had significantly higher scores for cardiovascular, gastrointestinal tract, urinary, and miscellaneous NMSS domains than those without FOG.


FOG in PD was associated with higher mHY stage, UPDRS part II score, and total NMSS score. Therefore, clinicians should consider non-motor, motor features and activities of daily living states for the proper management of FOG.


Parkinson’s disease Freezing of gait Non-motor symptoms 


Funding information

This work was supported by a grant from the Brain Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea, funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT, and Future Planning NRF-2016M3C7A1905469 (to BC Kim).

Compliance with ethical standards

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of the hospital, and informed consent was obtained from the study participants.

Conflicts of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia S.r.l., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of NeurologyChonnam National University HospitalGwangjuSouth Korea
  2. 2.National Research Center for DementiaGwangjuSouth Korea
  3. 3.Department of NeurologyChonnam National University Medical SchoolGwangjuSouth Korea

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