Was the subject portrayed in “A Man” by Cornelis Anthonisz around 1530 really affected by progressive supranuclear palsy?
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In June 1963, J. Clifford Richardson, John C. Steele, and Jerzy Olszewski presented the first clinical report of eight cases who showed supranuclear ophthalmoplegia, pseudobulbar palsy, nuchal dystonia, and dementia. The following year, they published the first comprehensive clinicopathological description of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) . In an extensive bibliography survey, Brusa and colleagues  found that there were descriptions of PSP before 1963. In 1889, Adolphe Dutil presented the first photographs of a woman with habitus strongly suggestive of PSP . During one of the famous Tuesday lessons (June 12, 1888), Jean-Martin Charcot showed a man, named Bachère, who had typical signs of PSP . Larner proposed the intriguing hypothesis that the first description of PSP was unconsciously made by Charles Dickens in 1857 .
The authors would like to thank the Detroit Institute of Arts Museum (Detroit, MI, USA) for the precious collaboration.
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The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
- 1.Steele JC, Richardson JC, Olszewski J (1964) Progressive supranuclear palsy. A heterogeneous degeneration involving the brain stem, basal ganglia and cerebellum with vertical gaze and pseudobulbar palsy, nuchal dystonia and dementia. Arch Neurol 10:333–359. https://doi.org/10.1001/archneur.1964.00460160003001 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar