Neuropsychological development in school-aged children after surgery or transcatheter closure for ventricular septal defect
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We aimed to assess neuropsychological development in school-aged children with ventricular septal defect (VSD) after surgery or transcatheter closure.
We included 31 children with VSD who underwent surgery and 35 who underwent transcatheter closure and their age- and sex-matched best friends as normal controls and parents. The Halstead-Reitan Battery was used to measure psychological and behavioral functions of children.
The mean finger-tapping time (left hand) was significantly lower for children with than without VSD (P < 0.05). For non-handedness tactual performance, the mean time was significantly longer for surgery than interventional therapy groups and controls (P < 0.05). The number of remembered locations was significantly lower for surgery than interventional therapy groups and controls (P < 0.05). The correct number of music rhythms was significantly lower for the surgery than control group (P < 0.05). Children with and without VSD did not differ in the correct number of first-group music rhythms. Nevertheless, for second- and third-group music rhythms, the correct number was significantly lower for the surgery than interventional therapy groups and controls (P < 0.05). The correct number of third-group music rhythms was significantly lower for only the interventional therapy than control group.
School-aged children with VSD had normal IQ levels after surgery or interventional therapy but decreased fine-motor and auditory discrimination abilities as well as visual spatial disorder. Children with and without VSD did not differ in general tasks, but abilities on more complex and difficult tasks were lower for children with VSD. Impairments were greater after surgery than interventional therapy.
KeywordsVentricular septal defect Pediatrics Neuropsychological development
Ventricular septal defect
Congenital heart disease
Tactual performance test
This study was supported by the Health Ministry of Shandong Province, People’s Republic of China (2009QZ018).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
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