The current study aimed to compare the effectiveness of two extraction techniques, namely simultaneous distillation–extraction (SDE) and solid-phase microextraction (SPME), in evaluating key aroma compounds in butters. Volatile compounds’ contributions to butter flavors were evaluated employing both odor active values (OAVs) and gas chromatography olfactometry (GC-O). The results showed that the species of volatile compounds detected by the two techniques were almost the same, whereas their volatile profiles were obviously different. Using SDE method, methyl ketones took up the largest proportion of the volatile compounds, followed by fatty acids. Using SPME method, the most abundant compounds were the fatty acids, followed by lactones. More methyl ketones were detected in the SDE extract owing to lipid degradation as a consequence of the high temperature during extraction. Lactones were considered to be the key aroma compounds, especially δ-decalactone, which was identified by both OAVs and GC-O.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
This work was supported by the earmarked fund for China Agriculture Research System (CARS-36; Beijing, China), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 31471689) and Beijing Postdoctoral Research Foundation (2018-ZZ-010).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
No conflict of interest exits in the submission of this manuscript, and the manuscript is approved by all authors for publication.
Bendall JG. Aroma compounds of fresh milk from New Zealand cows fed different diets. J. Agric. Food Chem. 49: 4825-4832 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cai JB, Liu BZ, Su QD. Comparison of simultaneous distillation extraction and solid-phase microextraction for the determination of volatile flavor components. J. Chromatogr. A 930(1–2): 1-7 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Couvreur S, Hurtaud C, Lopez C, Delaby L, Peyraud JL. The linear relationship between the proportion of fresh grass in the cow diet, milk fatty acid composition, and butter properties. J. Dairy Sci. 89: 1956-1969 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Garcia-Esteban M, Ansorena D, Astiasaran I, Martin D, Ruiz J. Comparison of simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE) and solid-phase microextraction (SPME) for the analysis of volatile compounds in dry-cured ham. J. Sci. Food Agric. 84: 1364-1370 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
González-Córdova AF, Vallejo-Cordoba B. Quantitative determination of short chain free fatty acids in milk using solid phase microextraction. J. Agric. Food Chem. 49: 4603-4608 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Krause AJ, Lopetcharat K, Drake MA. Effect of cold storage and packaging material on the major aroma components of sweet cream butter. J. Agric. Food Chem. 55: 7840-7846 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Larráyoz P, Addis M, Gauch R, Bosset JO. Comparison of dynamic headspace and simultaneous distillation extraction techniques used for the analysis of the volatile components in three European PDO ewes’ milk cheeses. Int. Dairy J. 11: 911-926 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lee SR, Macku C, Shibamoto T. Isolation and identification of headspace volatiles formed in heated butter. J. Agric. Food Chem. 39: 1972-1975 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Leuven IV, Caelenberg TV, Dirinck P. Aroma characterisation of Gouda-type cheeses. Int. Dairy J. 18: 790-800 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Li N, Sun BG, Zheng FP, Chen HT, Liu SY, Gu C, Song ZY. Identification of volatile components in yak butter using SAFE, SDE and HS-SPME-GC/MS. Nat. Prod. Res. 26: 778-784 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lin L, Zhuang M, Lei F, Yang B, Zhao M. GC/MS analysis of volatiles obtained by headspace solid-phase microextraction and simultaneous-distillation extraction from Rabdosia serra (MAXIM.) HARA leaf and stem. Food Chem. 136: 555-562 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mallia S, Escher F, Schlichtherle-Cerny H. Aroma-active compounds of butter: a review. Eur. Food Res. Technol. 226: 315-325 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nursten HE. The flavour of milk and dairy products milk of different kinds milk power butter and cream. Int. J. Dairy Technol. 50: 48-56 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Parker JK. Introduction to aroma compounds in foods. pp. 34–37. In: Flavour Development, Analysis and Perception in Food and Beverages. Parker JK, Elmore JS, Methven L (eds). Woodhead Publishing, Cambridge, UK (2015)Google Scholar
Peppard T, Yang XY. Solid phase microextraction for flavor analysis. J. Agric. Food Chem. 42: 1925-1930 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Peterson DG, Reineccius GA. Determination of the aroma impact compounds in heated sweet cream butter. Flavour Frag. J. 18: 320-324 (2003a)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Peterson DG, Reineccius GA. Characterization of the volatile compounds that constitute fresh sweet cream butter aroma. Flavour Frag. J. 18: 215-220 (2003b)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Povolo M, Contarini G. Comparison of solid-phase microextraction and purge-and-trap methods for the analysis of the volatile fraction of butter. J. Chromatogr. A 985: 117-125 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schieberle P, Gassenmeier K, Guth H, Sen A, Grosch W. Character impact odour compounds of different kinds of butter. LWT-Food Sci. Technol. 26: 347-356 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Urbach G, Stark W, Forss DA. Volatile compounds in butter oil: II. Flavour and flavour thresholds of lactones, fatty acids, phenols, indole and skatole in deodorized synthetic butter. J. Dairy Res. 39: 35-47 (1972)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wang B, Xu SY. Effects of different commercial lipases on the volatile profile of lipolysed milk fat. Flavor Frag. J. 24: 335-340 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
1.College of Food Science and Nutritional EngineeringChina Agricultural UniversityBeijingChina
2.Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Food Nutrition and Human Health, Beijing Engineering and Technology Research Center of Food Additives, Beijing Laboratory for Food Quality and SafetyBeijing Technology and Business University (BTBU)BeijingChina
3.Beijing Engineering and Technology Research Center of Food AdditivesBeijing Technology and Business UniversityBeijingChina