Puffing of Rehmannia glutinosa enhances anti-oxidant capacity and down-regulates IL-6 production in RAW 264.7 cells
- 6 Downloads
The roots of Rehmannia glutinosa (RG) have been widely used for medicinal purposes in Asia. The traditional processing of RG involves repetitive steaming and drying, and 9-time-steamed RG (NSRG) is the most commonly consumed form. For a development of a convenient processing method, RG was puffed at various pressures resulting in significantly increased solid extraction yield by up to 14%. The amount of the Maillard reaction product 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and the antioxidant capacities determined by the ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging assays were enhanced at increasing puffing pressure. Treatment of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages with RG extracts revealed that puffing of RG enhanced its suppression of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 by up to 37%. The 5-hydroxymethylfurfural contents, ABTS/DPPH radical scavenging capacities, and IL-6 regulatory effects of puffed RG samples were greater than those of the NSRG control, indicating that puffing is a desirable processing technique for development of nutraceuticals using RG.
KeywordsPuffing Cytokine Antioxidant Extraction yield Rehmannia glutinosa
This research was supported by a Grant (D171701) from Gyeonggi Technology Development Program funded by Gyeonggi Province. This study was also supported by Korea Institute of Planning and Evaluation for Technology in Food, Agriculture, and Forestry (Project No. 116021-3).
- Chen L, Lee MJ, Li H, Yang CS. Absorption, distribution, elimination of tea polyphenols in rats. Drug Metab. Dispos. 25: 1045–1050 (1997)Google Scholar
- Hong SP, Kim YC, Kim KH, Park JH, Park MK. Characteristic component of Rehmanniae Radix Preparata compared to Rehmanniae Radix and Rehmanniae Radix Crudus. Anal. Sci. Technol. 6: 401–404 (1993)Google Scholar
- Kim J, Ahn S, Choi S, Hur N, Kim B, Baik M. Changes in effective components of ginseng by puffing. Appl. Biol. Chem. 51: 188–193 (2008)Google Scholar
- Kim HK, Choi Y-W, Lee EN, Park JK, Kim S-G, Park D-J, Kim B-S, Lim Y-T, Yoon S. 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural from black garlic extract rrevents TNFα-induced monocytic cell adhesion to HUVECs by suppression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression, reactive oxygen species generation and NF-κB activation. Phytother. Res. 25: 965–974 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Lee J-H, Go J-A, Hwang E-Y, Hong S-P. Quantitative determination of 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde from Rehmanniae Radix Preparata according to various processings. Korean J. Herbol. 17: 145–149 (2002)Google Scholar
- Li Y-X, Li Y, Qian ZJ, Kim M-M, Kim S-K. In vitro antioxidant activity of 5-HMF isolated from marine red alga Laurencia undulata in free-radical-mediated oxidative systems. J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 19: 1319–27 (2009)Google Scholar
- Saqub U, Sarkar S, Suk K, Mohammad O, Baig MS, Savai R. Phytochemicals as modulators of M1–M2 macrophages in inflammation. Oncotarget 9: 17937–17950 (2018)Google Scholar
- Zhang RX, Jia ZP, Kong LY, Ma HP, Ren J, Li MX, Ge X. Stachyose extract from Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch. to lower plasma glucose in normal and diabetic rats by oral administration. Pharmazie 59: 552–556 (2004)Google Scholar