Decontamination of collards (Brassica oleracea var. acephala L.) using electrolyzed water and corona discharge plasma jet
- 68 Downloads
Acidic electrolyzed water (AEW) was used for collards sanitization. In the AEW (pH of 3.6; 230 mg/L chlorine) generator, the rates of brine inflow and catholyte outflow were 2.73 and 442 mL/min, respectively. Following treatment of the collards with the AEW alone (5 min), the counts of aerobic bacterial contaminants were reduced by 1.91 log CFU/g, whereas 2.22 log CFU/g reduction was noted by the AEW soaking (5 min) followed by a corona discharge plasma jet treatment (1 min). In a similar manner, the counts of yeasts and mold contaminants were reduced (1.48 and 1.75 log CFU/g, respectively). The combination treatment exhibited an additive effect on the microbial inactivation. The combined treatment did not affect significantly the DPPH-radical scavenging activity and sensory properties (appearance, color and flavor) of the collards compared to negative controls. However, significant alterations in the levels of total phenolics and ascorbic acid were observed post-treatment.
KeywordsCollard Decontamination Electrolyzed water Corona discharge plasma jet Sensory quality
This study was supported by the Ottogi Foundation, Korea (Grant No. 2016-0066).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Al-Qadiri HM, Al-Holy MA, Shiroodi SG, Ovissipour M, Govindan BN, Al-Alami N, Sablani SS, Rasco B. Effect of acidic electrolyzed water-induced bacterial inhibition and injury in live clam (Venerupis philippinarum) and mussel (Mytilus edulis). Int. J. Food Microbiol. 231: 48–53 (2016)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- AOAC. Official Method of Analysis of AOAC Intl. 18th ed. Method 967.21. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Gaithersburg, MD, USA (2005)Google Scholar
- Ding T, Ge Z, Shi J, Xu YT, Jones CL, Liu DH. Impact of slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) and ultrasound on microbial loads and quality of fresh fruits. LWT - Food Sci. Technol. 60(Part 2): 1195–1199 (2015)Google Scholar
- Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)/World Health Organization (WHO). Microbiological risk assessment series: Microbiological hazards in fresh fruit and vegetables (2008). Available at http://www.who.int/foodsafety
- Forsythe SJ. Methods of detection and characterization. 2nd ed., pp. 224–265. In: The Microbiology of Safe Food. Forsythe SJ (ed). John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, USA (2010)Google Scholar
- KFDA. Korean food standards codex (Vol. 2). Chungbuk, Korea: Korea Food and Drug Administration, 188.8.131.52–184.108.40.206 (2011)Google Scholar
- Korkmaz M, Polat M. Irradiation of fresh fruit and vegetables. pp. 387–428. In: Improving the safety of fresh fruit and vegetables. Jongen W (ed). Woodhead Publishing Limited, Cambridge, England (2005)Google Scholar
- Rahman SME, Khan I, Oh DH (2016). Electrolyzed water as a novel sanitizer in the food industry: current trends and future perspectives. Compr. Rev. Food Sci. F. 15: 471–490.Google Scholar
- Singleton VL, Rossi JA. Colorimetry of total phenolics with phosphomolybdic-phosphotungstic acid reagents. Am. J. Enol. Viticult. 16: 144–158 (1965)Google Scholar