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Hypouricemia: what the practicing rheumatologist should know about this condition

Abstract

We presented an update in the field of hypouricemia, which is defined as a serum urate concentration of < 2 mg/dL (119 μmol/L), for the practicing rheumatologist, who usually is the consulting physician in cases of disorders of urate metabolism. We performed a narrative review through a literature search for original and review articles in the field of human hypouricemia published between January 1950 and July 2018. We divided the etiology of hypouricemia into two main categories: those associated with a decrease in urate production and those promoting the elimination of urate via the kidneys. The most common conditions associated with these categories are discussed. Furthermore, the etiology of hypouricemia may be associated with certain medications prescribed by the practicing rheumatologists, such as the following: urate-lowering drugs (allopurinol and febuxostat); recombinant uricase (pegloticase); uricosuric agents (probenecid, benzbromarone); urate transporter URAT1 inhibitor (lesinurad); angiotensin II receptor blocker (losartan); fenofibrate; high-dose trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole; some NSAID; and high-dose salicylate therapy. The rheumatologist is considered an expert in the metabolism of urate and its associated pathological conditions. Therefore, specialists must recognize hypouricemia as a biomarker of various pathological and potentially harmful conditions, highlighting the importance of conducting a deeper clinical investigation to reach a more accurate diagnosis and treatment.

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Pineda, C., Soto-Fajardo, C., Mendoza, J. et al. Hypouricemia: what the practicing rheumatologist should know about this condition. Clin Rheumatol 39, 135–147 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10067-019-04788-8

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Keywords

  • Diagnosis
  • Hypouricemia
  • Urate transporters
  • Uric acid