Clinical Rheumatology

, Volume 38, Issue 12, pp 3539–3547 | Cite as

The prevalence of type 2 diabetes and associated risk factors with generalized osteoarthritis: a retrospective study using ICD codes for clinical data repository system

  • Aqeel M. AlenaziEmail author
  • Shaima Alothman
  • Mohammed M. Alshehri
  • Jason Rucker
  • Lemuel R. Waitman
  • Jo Wick
  • Neena K. Sharma
  • Patricia M. Kluding
Original Article



Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been associated with osteoarthritis (OA). T2DM may be associated with generalized OA (GOA ≥ 3 joints) rather than localized OA (LOA < 3 joints). The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of T2DM in people with GOA compared with LOA and to investigate the association between demographic risk factors and chronic diseases (i.e., T2DM, hypertension, dyslipidemia, neuropathy, and body mass index (BMI)) with GOA compared with LOA.


A retrospective review of data was performed, and patients with diagnostic codes for OA were selected. Identified codes included primary GOA, primary LOA, T2DM, hypertension, dyslipidemia, neuropathy, depression, anxiety, and sleep disorders. Information about BMI and medication list was obtained. Chi-square and logistic regression were performed to examine the prevalence and risk factors, respectively.


Data from 3855 patients (mean age = 66.43 ± 11.02, 60.9% women) included patients with GOA (n = 1265) and LOA (n = 2590). The prevalence of T2DM was significantly greater among patients with GOA (25.8%) compared with those with LOA (12.0%); however, the GOA group were older. Based on age groups, T2DM was prevalent in 17.8% of GOA compared with 7.2% in LOA for younger adults (aged 45–64 years) and was prevalent in 28.8% of GOA compared with 15.7% in LOA for older adults (aged 65 years or older). The odds ratio of GOA increased in people with chronic diseases compared with those without including T2DM (odds ratio (OR) 1.37, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05–1.78, p = 0.02), hypertension (OR 1.99, CI 1.63–2.43, p < 0.001), and dyslipidemia (OR 3.46, CI 2.86–4.19, p < 0.001), adjusting for covariates.


Higher prevalence of T2DM was found in people with GOA when compared with LOA across both age groups. T2DM, hypertension, and dyslipidemia were associated with GOA. Future research with longitudinal designs is needed to test the causality of this association.

Key Points

• The prevalence of type 2 diabetes in people with generalized osteoarthritis was almost double compared with localized osteoarthritis, although generalized osteoarthritis group were older.

• Among people with osteoarthritis, the risk of generalized osteoarthritis is increased by 37% when people had type 2 diabetes, by 99% when people had hypertension, and by 246% when people had dyslipidemia.


Diabetes Dyslipidemia High blood pressure Multisite osteoarthritis 


Author contributions

All authors have made substantial contributions to all of the following: (1) the conception and design of the study, or acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data, (2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content, (3) final approval of the version to be submitted. Aqeel M Alenazi takes the full responsibility for this work.

Funding information

This work was financially supported by a CTSA grant from NCATS awarded to the University of Kansas for Frontiers: University of Kansas Clinical and Translational Science Institute (# UL1TR002366).

Compliance with ethical standards

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in this study were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration. This study received an exempt determination from the institutional review board for using de-identified data. An approval from the Data Request Oversight Committee was obtained for this analysis.




The contents are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official views of the NIH or NCATS.


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Copyright information

© International League of Associations for Rheumatology (ILAR) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation ScienceUniversity of Kansas Medical CenterKansas CityUSA
  2. 2.Department of Rehabilitation Sciences and Physical TherapyPrince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz UniversityAlkharjSaudi Arabia
  3. 3.Department of Rehabilitation ScienceJazan UniversityJazanSaudi Arabia
  4. 4.Department of Internal MedicineUniversity of Kansas Medical CenterKansas CityUSA
  5. 5.Department of BiostatisticsUniversity of Kansas Medical CenterKansas CityUSA

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