The gait deviations of ankylosing spondylitis with hip involvement

  • Guoning Zhang
  • Jia Li
  • Zhengliang Xia
  • Weidong XuEmail author
Original Article



The aim of the study was to investigate the gait deviations of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients with hip involvement.


Thirty-six subjects, including 18 AS patients with hip involvement (AS group) and 18 healthy people (control subjects, CS group), were enrolled in the study. Three-dimensional gait analysis of the AS group and CS group was performed. Kinematic parameters, kinetic parameters and surface electromyography (sEMG) during the gait cycle were measured.


The AS patients with hip involvement had a lower gait velocity, shorter step length and shorter stride length. In the hip angles, there was significantly decreased flexion, excessive abduction and excessive external rotation; there was excessive flexion in the knee and reduction in plantar flexion of the ankle. AS patients had increased forward trunk flexion, excessive obliquity and restricted rotation of the trunk during the gait cycle. The hip moments of the AS group showed a significant reduction in flexion, abduction and external rotation during the gait cycle. The root mean square amplitude of the sEMG for the rectus femoris in the AS group was higher than that in the CS group.


The gait deviations in AS patients with hip involvement were described in this study. The gait analysis results demonstrated statistically significant alterations regarding the kinematic and kinetic gait parameters for the patients included in the sample. Coordination and balance were impaired by the disease. An efficient physical exercise plan can be formulated according to the results of gait analysis.


Ankylosing spondylitis Gait analysis Kinematics Kinetics 



ankylosing spondylitis


body mass index


Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index


Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index


Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index

VAS pain

Visual Analog Scale for Pain


Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Hip Radiology Index


Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Radiology Index on Sacroiliac Joint


ground reaction force


peak vertical ground reaction force


surface electromyography


integrated electromyography


root mean square amplitude



The authors thank all the patients and volunteers that participated in the study.

Authors’ contributions

Guoning Zhang, Jia Li and Zhengliang Xia contributed equally to the manuscript; they conceived and designed the study. Guoning Zhang and Jia Li collected the clinical data. Guoning Zhang and Zhengliang Xia conducted the gait analysis and performed the statistical analysis. Weidong Xu approved the final version.

Funding sources

This research was supported by funding from the “Establishment of parachute training computer simulation system for parachute training” (Grant No. BKJ14J004).

Compliance with ethical standards

All patients provided written informed consent. The study was conducted by the orthopaedic department of our hospital and was approved by the clinical research ethics committee of Changhai Hospital (CHEC2013-194).




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Copyright information

© International League of Associations for Rheumatology (ILAR) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of OrthopedicsTongren Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of MedicineShanghaiChina
  2. 2.Department of OrthopedicsChanghai Hospital Affiliated to the Second Military Medical UniversityShanghaiChina
  3. 3.School of KinesiologyShanghai University of SportShanghaiChina

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