Advertisement

Clinical Rheumatology

, Volume 38, Issue 2, pp 385–395 | Cite as

Osteoporosis: a clinical and pharmacological update

  • Maritza VidalEmail author
  • Ross J. Thibodaux
  • Luis Fernando Vidal Neira
  • Osvaldo Daniel Messina
Review Article

Abstract

Osteoporosis is characterized by the loss of bone mass, deterioration of the bone microarchitecture, and an increased risk of fractures; these later complications are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The asymptomatic and progressive nature of osteoporosis underscores the importance of identifying this entity in early stages. Despite the various treatments available, the prevention of the disease represents the most important aspect of management. An adequate intake of calcium and vitamin D as well as a healthy lifestyle is the basis for maintaining bone health. When osteoporosis is diagnosed, the choice of medications must be individualized considering characteristics of the patient and the risk of fractures. In this article, we review the main causes of osteoporosis, when and how to start treatment, and appropriate therapy and monitoring.

Keywords

Bone mineral density Fractures Osteoporosis Osteoporosis treatment 

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Disclosures

None.

References

  1. 1.
    Kanis JA (2007) WHO Technical Report, University of Sheffield, UK, p 66Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    World Health Organization (1994) Assessment of fracture risk and its application to screening for postmenopausal osteoporosis: report of a WHO study group [meeting held in Rome from 22 to 25 June 1992]Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    NIH Consensus Development Panel on Osteoporosis Prevention, Diagnosis, and Therapy (2001) Osteoporosis prevention, diagnosis, and therapy. JAMA 285(6):785–795Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Camacho PM, Petak SM, Brinkley N, Clarke BL, Harris ST, Hurley DL et al (2016) AACE/ACE Guidelines-American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and American College of endocrinology clinical practice guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Endocr Pract 22(4):1–42Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ballane G, Cauley JA, Luckey MM, Fuleihan GEH (2014) Secular trends in hip fractures worldwide: opposing trends East versus West. J Bone Miner Res 29(8):1745–1755Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    International Society for Clinical Densitometry (ISCD). Official Positions of the ISCD as updated in 2015. http://www.iscd.org/official-positions/2013-iscd-official-positions-adult/. Updated: August 15, 2013 (accedido el 14 de septiembre del 2018)
  7. 7.
    Black DM, Rosen CJ (2016) Postmenopausal osteoporosis. N Engl J Med 374(3):254–262Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Siris ES, Adler R, Bilezikian J, Bolognese M, Dawson-Hughes B, Favus MJ, Harris ST, Jan de Beur SM, Khosla S, Lane NE, Lindsay R, Nana AD, Orwoll ES, Saag K, Silverman S, Watts NB (2014) The clinical diagnosis of osteoporosis: a position statement from the National Bone Health Alliance Working Group. Osteoporos Int 25(5):1439–1443Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lewiecki EM (2018) Osteoporosis: clinical evaluation. [Updated 2018 Apr 23] In: De Groot LJ, Chrousos G, Dungan K et al (eds) Endotext. South Dartmouth: MDText.com, Inc. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK279049/
  10. 10.
    Sanfélix-Genovés J, Catalá-López F, Sanfélix-Gimeno G, Hurtado I, Baixauli C, Peiró S (2014) Variabilidad en las recomendaciones para el abordaje clínico de la osteoporosis. Med Clin (Barc) 142(1):15–22Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lewiecki EM (2012) To treat or not to treat: reducing fracture risk in postmenopausal women. Female Patient 37:11–16Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Compston J, Cooper A, Cooper C, Gittoes N, Gregson C, Harvey N et al (2017) UK clinical guideline for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Arch Osteoporos 12(1):43Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Cosman F, De Beur SJ, LeBoff MS, Lewiecki EM, Tanner B, Randall S et al (2014) Clinician’s guide to prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Osteoporos Int 25(10):2359–2381Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Compston J, Bowring C, Cooper A, Cooper C, Davies C, Francis R, Kanis JA, Marsh D, McCloskey E, Reid DM, Selby P, National Osteoporosis Guideline Group (2013) Diagnosis and management of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women and older men in the UK: National Osteoporosis Guideline Group (NOGG) update 2013. Maturitas 75(4):392–396Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    North American Menopause Society (2010) NAMS continuing medical education activity; management of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women: 2010 position statement. Menopause 17(1):23–56Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Holick MF, Binkley NC, Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Gordon CM, Hanley DA, Heaney RP, Murad MH, Weaver CM, Endocrine Society (2011) Evaluation, treatment, and prevention of vitamin D deficiency: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocr Metab 96(7):1911–1930Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Moreira MLM, de Paula FJA (2017) What value is there in assessing postmenopausal women for vitamin D deficiency? Rev Bras Ginecol Obstet 39(11):585–586Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Dawson-Hughes B, Mithal A, Bonjour JP, Boonen S, Burckhardt P, Fuleihan GH et al (2010) IOF position statement: vitamin D recommendations for older adults. Osteoporos Int 21(7):1151–1154Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Del Valle HB, Yaktine AL, Taylor CL, Ross AC (eds) (2011) Dietary reference intakes for calcium and vitamin D. National Academies PressGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Rizzoli R (2011) Bisphosphonates for post-menopausal osteoporosis: are they all the same? QJM-Int J Med 104(4):281–300Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kanis JA, McCloskey EV, Johansson H, Cooper C, Rizzoli R, Reginster JY (2013) European guidance for the diagnosis and management of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Osteoporos Int 24(1):23–57Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Body JJ, Bergmann P, Boonen S, Boutsen Y, Devogelaer JP, Goemaere S, Kaufman JM, Rozenberg S, Reginster JY (2010) Evidence-based guidelines for the pharmacological treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis: a consensus document by the Belgian Bone Club. Osteoporos Int 21(10):1657–1680Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Papaioannou A, Morin S, Cheung AM, Atkinson S, Brown JP, Feldman S (2010) Collab; Scientific Advisory Council of Osteoporosis Canada. 2010 clinical practice guidelines for the diagnosis and management of osteoporosis in Canada: summary. CMAJ 182(17):1864–1873Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Silverman S, Christiansen C (2012) Individualizing osteoporosis therapy. Osteoporos Int 23(3):797–809Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Cosman F, Miller PD, Williams GC, Hattersley G, Hu MY, Valter I, Fitzpatrick LA, Riis BJ, Christiansen C, Bilezikian JP, Black D (2017) Eighteen months of treatment with subcutaneous abaloparatide followed by 6 months of treatment with alendronate in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis: results of the ACTIVExtend trial. Mayo Clin Proc 92(2):200–210Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Miller PD, Hattersley G, Riis BJ, Williams GC, Lau E, Russo LA, Alexandersen P, Zerbini CAF, Hu MY, Harris AG, Fitzpatrick LA, Cosman F, Christiansen C, for the ACTIVE Study Investigators (2016) Effect of abaloparatide vs placebo on new vertebral fractures in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA 316(7):722–733Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Saag KG, Wagman RB, Geusens P, Adachi JD, Messina OD, Emkey R, Chapurlat R, Wang A, Pannacciulli N, Lems WF (2018) Denosumab versus risedronate in glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis: a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, active-controlled, double-dummy, non-inferiority study. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 6(6):445–454.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S2213-8587(18)30075-5 Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Mendoza N, Sánchez-Borrego R, Villero J, Baró F, Calaf J, Cancelo MJ, Coronado P, Estévez A, Fernández-Moya JM, González S, Llaneza P, Neyro JL, del Pino J, Rodríguez E, Ruiz E, Cano A, Spanish Menopause Society (2013) 2013 up-date of the consensus statement of the Spanish menopause society on postmenopausal osteoporosis. Maturitas 76(1):99–107Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    McClung MR, Grauer A, Boonen S, Bolognese MA, Brown JP, Diez-Perez A et al (2014) Romosozumab in postmenopausal women with low bone mineral density. N Engl J Med 370(5):412–420Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Saag KG, Petersen J, Brandi ML, Karaplis AC, Lorentzon M, Thomas T, Maddox J, Fan M, Meisner PD, Grauer A (2017) Romosozumab or alendronate for fracture prevention in women with osteoporosis. N Engl J Med 377(15):1417–1427Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Zerbini CAF, McClung MR (2013) Odanacatib in postmenopausal women with low bone mineral density: a review of current clinical evidence. Ther Adv Musculoskelet Dis 5(4):199–209.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1759720X13490860 Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Bone HG, McClung MR, Roux C, Recker RR, Eisman JA, Verbruggen N, Hustad CM, DaSilva C, Santora AC, Ince BA (2010) Odanacatib, a cathepsin-K inhibitor for osteoporosis: a two-year study in postmenopausal women with low bone density. J Bone Miner Res 25(5):937–947Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Eisman JA, Bone HG, Hosking DJ, McClung MR, Reid IR, Rizzoli R et al (2011) Odanacatib in the treatment of postmenopausal women with low bone mineral density: three-year continued therapy and resolution of effect. J Bone Miner Res 26(2):242–251Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Cosman F, Nieves JW, Dempster DW (2017) Treatment sequence matters: anabolic and antiresorptive therapy for osteoporosis. J Bone Miner Res 32(2):198–202Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Tsai JN, Uihlein AV, Lee H, Kumbhani R, Siwila-Sackman E, McKay EA et al (2013) Teriparatide and denosumab, alone or combined, in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis: the DATA study randomised trial. Lancet 382(9886):50–56Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Nakamura Y, Suzuki T, Kamimura M, Ikegami S, Murakami K, Uchiyama S, Taguchi A, Kato H (2017) Two-year clinical outcome of denosumab treatment alone and in combination with teriparatide in Japanese treatment-naive postmenopausal osteoporotic women. Bone Res 5:16055Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Tsai JN, Uihlein AV, Burnett-Bowie SAM, Neer RM, Zhu Y, Derrico N, Lee H, Bouxsein ML, Leder BZ (2015) Comparative effects of teriparatide, denosumab, and combination therapy on peripheral compartmental bone density, microarchitecture, and estimated strength: the DATA-HRpQCT study. J Bone Miner Res 30(1):39–45Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Leder BZ, Tsai JN, Uihlein AV, Wallace PM, Lee H, Neer RM, Burnett-Bowie SAM (2015) Denosumab and teriparatide transitions in postmenopausal osteoporosis (the DATA-Switch study): extension of a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 386(9999):1147–1155Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Tsai JN, Uihlein AV, Burnett-Bowie SM, Neer RM, Derrico NP, Lee H, Bouxsein ML, Leder BZ (2016) Effects of two years of teriparatide, denosumab, or both on bone microarchitecture and strength (DATA-HRpQCT study). J Clin Endocr Metab 101(5):2023–2030Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Wade SW, Strader C, Fitzpatrick LA, Anthony MS, O’Malley CD (2014) Estimating prevalence of osteoporosis: examples from industrialized countries. Arch Osteoporos 9(1):182Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Giusti A, Bianchi G (2015) Treatment of primary osteoporosis in men. Clin Interv Aging 10:105Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Bliuc D, Nguyen ND, Milch VE, Nguyen TV, Eisman JA, Center JR (2009) Mortality risk associated with low-trauma osteoporotic fracture and subsequent fracture in men and women. JAMA 301:513–521Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Cawthon PM (2011) Gender differences in osteoporosis and fractures. Clin Orthop Relat Res 469(7):1900–1905Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Bonjour JP, Chevalley T, Ferrari S, Rizzoli R (2009) The importance and relevance of peak bone mass in the prevalence of osteoporosis. Salud Publica Mex 51(Suppl 1):S5–S17Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Peris P, Martinez-Ferrer A, Monegal A, Martinez de Osaba MJ, Alvarez L, Ros I et al (2008) Aetiology and clinical characteristics of male osteoporosis. Have they changed in the last few years? Clin Exp Rheumatol 26(4):582–588Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Kanis JA, Johansson H, Johnell O, Oden A, De Laet C, Eisman JA et al (2005) Alcohol intake as a risk factor for fracture. Osteoporos Int 16:737–742Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Zhang X, Yu Z, Yu M, Qu X (2015) Alcohol consumption and hip fracture risk. Osteoporos Int 26(2):531–542Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Kanis JA, Johnell O, Odén A, Johansson H, De Laet C, Eisman JA et al (2005) Smoking and fracture risk: a meta-analysis. Osteoporos Int 16(2):155–162Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Adler RA (2014) Osteoporosis in men: a review. Bone Res 2:14001Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Ebeling PR (2014) Osteoporosis in men: why change needs to happen. International Osteoporosis FoundationGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Orwoll ES, Miller PD, Adachi JD, Brown J, Adler RA, Kendler D, Bucci-Rechtweg C, Readie A, Mesenbrink P, Weinstein RS (2010) Efficacy and safety of a once-yearly i.v. infusion of zoledronic acid 5 mg versus a once-weekly 70-mg oral alendronate in the treatment of male osteoporosis: a randomized, multicenter, double-blind, active-controlled study. Journal of bone and mineral research. J Bone Miner Res 25:2239–2250Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Orwoll E, Ettinger M, Weiss S, Miller P, Kendler D, Graham J, Adami S, Weber K, Lorenc R, Pietschmann P, Vandormael K, Lombardi A (2000) Alendronate for the treatment of osteoporosis in men. New Engl J Med 343:604–610Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Willson T, Nelson SD, Newbold J, Nelson RE, LaFleur J (2015) The clinical epidemiology of male osteoporosis: a review of the recent literature. J Clin Epidemiol 7:65Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    McDonough AK, Curtis JR, Saag KG (2008) The epidemiology of glucocorticoid-associated adverse events. Curr Opin Rheumatol 20(2):131–137Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Buckley L, Guyatt G, Fink HA, Cannon M, Grossman J, Hansen KE, Humphrey MB, Lane NE, Magrey M, Miller M, Morrison L, Rao M, Byun Robinson A, Saha S, Wolver S, Bannuru RR, Vaysbrot E, Osani M, Turgunbaev M, Miller AS, McAlindon T (2017) 2017 American College of Rheumatology Guideline for the prevention and treatment of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. Arthritis Care Res 69(8):1095–1110Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Rossini M, Viapiana O, Vitiello M, Malavolta N, La Montagna G, Bongi SM et al (2017) Prevalence and incidence of osteoporotic fractures in patients on long-term glucocorticoid treatment for rheumatic diseases: the Glucocorticoid Induced OsTeoporosis TOol (GIOTTO) study. Reumatismo 69(1):30–39Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Mitra R (2011) Adverse effects of corticosteroids on bone metabolism: a review. PM R 3(5):466–471Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Lekamwasam S, Adachi JD, Agnusdei D, Bilezikian J, Boonen S, Borgström F et al (2012) A framework for the development of guidelines for the management of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. Osteoporos Int 23(9):2257–2276Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Van Staa TP, Leufkens HGM, Abenhaim L, Zhang B, Cooper C (2000) Oral corticosteroids and fracture risk: relationship to daily and cumulative doses. Rheumatology 39(12):1383–1389Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Geusens P, Goemaere S, Pannacciulli N, Lane NE, Lespessailles E, Messina OD, Chapurlat R, Yin X, Wagman R, van den Bergh JPW (2018) Effect of denosumab versus risedronate on cortical and trabecular bone microarchitecture by high resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) in glucocorticoid-treated individuals. FRI-0906 Friday, September 28, 2018-ASBMR 2018 Annual Meeting, MontrealGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Vasikaran S, Eastell R, Bruyère O, Foldes AJ, Garnero P, Griesmacher A et al (2011) Markers of bone turnover for the prediction of fracture risk and monitoring of osteoporosis treatment: a need for international reference standards. Osteoporos Int 22(2):391–420Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Romero Barco CM, Manrique Arija S, Rodríguez Pérez M (2012) Marcadores bioquímicos en osteoporosis. Utilidad en la práctica clínica. Reumatol Clin 8(3):149–152Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Diez-Perez A, Naylor KE, Abrahamsen B, Agnusdei D, Brandi ML, Cooper C et al (2017) International osteoporosis foundation and european calcified tissue society working group. Recommendations for the screening of adherence to oral bisphosphonates. Osteoporos Int 28(3):767–774Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Carey JJ (2005) What is a ‘failure’ of bisphosphonate therapy for osteoporosis? Cleve Clin J Med 72(11):1033–1039Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Diez-Perez A, Adachi JD, Agnusdei D, Bilezikian JP, Compston JE, Cummings SR et al (2012) Treatment failure in osteoporosis. Osteoporos Int 23(12):2769–2774Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Gehlbach S, Saag KG, Adachi JD, Hooven FH, Flahive J, Boonen S, Chapurlat RD, Compston JE, Cooper C, Díez-Perez A, Greenspan SL, LaCroix AZ, Netelenbos JC, Pfeilschifter J, Rossini M, Roux C, Sambrook PN, Silverman S, Siris ES, Watts NB, Lindsay R (2012) Previous fractures at multiple sites increase the risk for subsequent fractures: the global longitudinal study of osteoporosis in women. J Bone Miner Res 27(3):645–653Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Díez-Pérez A, Olmos JM, Nogués X, Sosa M, Díaz-Curiel M, Pérez-Castrillón JL, Pérez-Cano R, Muñoz-Torres M, Torrijos A, Jodar E, del Rio L, Caeiro-Rey JR, Farrerons J, Vila J, Arnaud C, González-Macías J (2012) Risk factors for prediction of inadequate response to antiresorptives. J Bone Moner Res 27(4):817–824Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Pasco JA, Seeman E, Henry MJ, Merriman EN, Nicholson GC, Kotowicz MA (2006) The population burden of fractures originates in women with osteopenia, not osteoporosis. Osteoporos Int 17(9):1404–1409Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Vondracek SF, Minne P, McDermott MT (2008) Clinical challenges in the management of osteoporosis. Clin Interv Aging 3(2):315–329Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Hochberg MC, Greenspan S, Wasnich RD, Miller P, Thompson DE, Ross PD (2002) Changes in bone density and turnover explain the reductions in incidence of nonvertebral fractures that occur during treatment with antiresorptive agents. J Clin Endocr Metab 87(4):1586–1592Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Hlaing TT, Compston JE (2014) Biochemical markers of bone turnover–uses and limitations. Ann Clin Biochem 51(2):189–202Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Chapurlat RD, Palermo L, Ramsay P, Cummings SR (2005) Risk of fracture among women who lose bone density during treatment with alendronate. The fracture intervention trial. Osteoporos Int 16(7):842–848Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Caro JJ, Ishak KJ, Huybrechts KF, Raggio G, Naujoks C (2004) The impact of compliance with osteoporosis therapy on fracture rates in actual practice. Osteoporos Int 15(12):1003–1008Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Siris E, Rosen CJ, Harris ST, Abbott TA, Barr CE, Silverman S (2005, April) Adherence to bisphosphonate therapy: relationship to bone fractures at 24 months in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. In National Osteoporosis Foundation 6th International Symposium on Osteoporosis, pp 6–9Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    McCombs JS, Thiebaud P, McLaughlin-Miley C, Shi J (2004) Compliance with drug therapies for the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis. Maturitas 48:271–287Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Becker CB (2016) Osteoporosis: managing patients who fracture on osteoporosis treatment. Meet-the-professor: endocrine case management.  https://doi.org/10.1210/MTP5.9781943550043.ch14
  77. 77.
    Boonen S, Ferrari S, Miller PD, Eriksen EF, Sambrook PN, Compston J, Reid IR, Vanderschueren D, Cosman F (2012) Postmenopausal osteoporosis treatment with antiresorptives: effects of discontinuation or long-term continuation on bone turnover and fracture risk—a perspective. J Bone Miner Res 27(5):963–974Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Eriksen EF, Díez-Pérez A, Boonen S (2014) Update on long-term treatment with bisphosphonates for postmenopausal osteoporosis: a systematic review. Bone 58:126–135Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Yoneda T, Hagino H, Sugimoto T, Ohta H, Takahashi S, Soen S et al (2017) Anti-resorptive agent-related osteonecrosis of the jaw: Position Paper 2017 of the Japanese Allied Committee on Osteonecrosis of the Jaw. J Bone Miner Metab 35(1):6–19.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00774-016-0810-7 Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Svejda B, Muschitz C, Gruber R, Brandtner C, Svejda C, Gasser RW, Santler G, Dimai HP (2016) Position paper on medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ). Wien Med Wochenschr 166(1–2):68–74Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Khan AA, Morrison A, Hanley DA, Felsenberg D, McCauley LK (2015) Diagnosis and management of osteonecrosis of the jaw: a systematic review and international consensus. J Bone Min Res 30:3–23Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Adler RA, Fuleihan G, Bauer DC, Camacho PM, Clarke BL et al (2016) Managing osteoporosis in patients on long-term bisphosphonate treatment: report of a task force of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. J Bone Miner Res 31:16–35Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Dell RM, Adams AL, Greene DF, Funahashi TD, Silverman SL, Eisemon EO et al (2012) Incidence of atypical nontraumatic diaphyseal fractures of the femur. J Bone Min Res 27:2544–2550Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Shane E, Burr D, Abrahamsen B, Adler RA, Brown TD, Cheung AM, Cosman F, Curtis JR, Dell R, Dempster DW, Ebeling PR, Einhorn TA, Genant HK, Geusens P, Klaushofer K, Lane JM, McKiernan F, McKinney R, Ng A, Nieves J, O'Keefe R, Papapoulos S, Howe TS, van der Meulen MCH, Weinstein RS, Whyte MP (2014) Atypical subtrochanteric and diaphyseal femoral fractures: second report of a task force of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. J Bone Miner Res 29(1):1–23Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Nguyen HH, van de Laarschot DM, Verkerk A, Milat F, Zillikens MC, Ebeling PR (2018) Genetic risk factors for atypical femoral fractures (AFFs): a systematic review. JBMR Plus 2:1–11Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Xu XL, Gou WL, Wang AY, Wang Y, Guo QY, Lu Q, Lu SB, Peng J (2013) Basic research and clinical applications of bisphosphonates in bone disease: what have we learned over the last 40 years? J Transl Med 11(1):303Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Compston JE, Bilezikian JP (2012) Bisphosphonate therapy for osteoporosis: the long and short of it. J Bone Miner Res 27(2):240–242Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Curtis JR, Chen R, Li Z, Arora T, Saag KG, Wright NC et al (2018) The impact of the duration of bisphosphonate drug holidays on hip fracture rates. Ann Rheum Dis 77:58Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Anagnostis P, Paschou S, Mintziori G, Lambrinoudaki I, Goulis D (2017) Efficacy and safety of bisphosphonate discontinuation in postmenopausal osteoporosis: a systematic review. Endocr Abstr.  https://doi.org/10.1530/endoabs.49.EP214
  90. 90.
    Anagnostis P, Paschou SA, Mintziori G, Ceausu I, Depypere H et al (2017) Drug holidays from bisphosphonates and denosumab in postmenopausal osteoporosis: EMAS position statement. Maturitas 10:23–30Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Ott SM (2011) What is the optimal duration of bisphosphonate therapy? Cleve Clin J Med 78(9):619–630Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Briot K, Trémollières F, Thomas T, Roux C (2007) How long should patients take medications for postmenopausal osteoporosis? Joint Bone Spine 74(1):24–31Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Black DM, Bauer DC, Schwartz AV, Cummings SR, Rosen CJ (2012) Continuing bisphosphonate treatment for osteoporosis—for whom and for how long? N Engl J Med 366(22):2051–2053Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Leder BZ, Tsai JN, Jiang LA, Lee H (2017) Importance of prompt antiresorptive therapy in postmenopausal women discontinuing teriparatide or denosumab: the Denosumab and Teriparatide Follow-up study (DATA-Follow-up). Bone 98:54–58Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Tsourdi E, Langdahl B, Cohen-Solal M, Aubry-Rozier B, Eriksen EF (2017) Discontinuation of denosumab therapy for osteoporosis: a systematic review and position statement by ECTS. Bone 105:11–17Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Anastasilakis AD, Polyzos SA, Makras P, Aubry-Rozier B, Kaouri S, Lamy O (2017) Clinical features of 24 patients with rebound-associated vertebral fractures after denosumab discontinuation: systematic review and additional cases. J Bone Miner Res 32:1291–1296Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Gonzalez Rodriguez E, Delphine St, Aubry-Rozier B, Olivier L (2018) Thirty-one men and women with 145 spontaneous vertebral fractures after denosumab discontinuation: a single center observational study. In 20th European Congress of Endocrinology. Endocrine Abstracts.  https://doi.org/10.1530/endoabs.56.GP59
  98. 98.
    Albergaria BH, Chalem M, Clark P, Messina OD, Pereira RMR, Vidal LF (2018) Consensus statement: osteoporosis prevention and treatment in Latin America—current structure and future directions. Arch Osteoporos 13(1):90Google Scholar

Copyright information

© International League of Associations for Rheumatology (ILAR) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centro de Diagnóstico de Osteoporosis y Enfermedades Reumáticas (CEDOR)LimaPeru
  2. 2.Division of RheumatologyLSU Health Sciences Center - New OrleansNew OrleansUSA
  3. 3.Hospital María AuxiliadoraLimaPeru
  4. 4.International Osteoporosis Foundation (IOF)NyonSwitzerland
  5. 5.Hospital Cosme ArgerichBuenos AiresArgentina
  6. 6.International Osteoporosis Foundation (IOF)Buenos AiresArgentina

Personalised recommendations