Advertisement

Numerical investigation on a grouting mechanism with slurry-rock coupling and shear displacement in a single rough fracture

  • Wenqiang Mu
  • Lianchong LiEmail author
  • Tianhong Yang
  • Guofeng Yu
  • Yunchun Han
Original Paper
  • 20 Downloads

Abstract

A slurry diffusion model of a single random-roughness fissure is established to consider the slurry and geological fracture coupling based on the Navier-Stokes equation. The slurry flow characteristics and coupling response in a rough fracture are investigated. The influencing mechanism of roughness on the slurry flow was revealed. The calculation model of effective aperture is determined in a rough fracture. The shear displacement effects on the slurry flow are studied. The results show that this slurry diffusion model can more accurately reflect the grouting. A rougher fracture has a great effect on the flow because of the larger low-speed domains. The pressure gradient and maximum diffusion velocity increase parabolically with changes in the relative roughness. The conventional flat-panel model can cause an increasing deviation rate for determination of grouting parameters. The coupling degree distribution is temporal with spatial variations, and increases with the time-dependent viscosity, roughness (decreasing effective aperture), and a shortening path. The viscosity is the key controlling factor in grouting pressure. The roughness response after shear displacement is more significant, further revealing that on-site grout splitting often occurs at the narrow undulating tip with high viscosity and shear on a rough flow surface. The rough fracture model considering fluid-solid coupling is more consistent with the grouting phenomenon in engineering. And the roughness and shear are the key geological factors of grout splitting.

Keywords

Grouting flow Rough fracture Coupling response Shear displacement Damage and splitting 

Abbreviations

List of symbols

GIN

Grouting intensity number.

yi

Coordinate of unit point i.

hi

Elevation in coordinate system.

bj, i

Aperture of number i in fracture j.

m

Number of segmented units.

\( {\overline{b}}_j \)

Average aperture of fracture j.

k

Consistency coefficient.

n

Flow behavior index.

E

Young’s modulus.

P

Grouting pressure.

GL

Grouting length.

DOF

Degree of freedom.

ur

Rock deformation velocity.

uf

Slurry velocity.

n

Unit normal vector.

b

Fracture aperture.

v

Slurry flow rate.

NS

No shear deformation.

SH

Shear deformation.

r

Radius.

Ji

Pressure gradient.

w

Error rate.

C-S

Cement-sodium silicate.

KI

Stress intensity factor.

KIc

Flexibility of fracture.

Greek symbols

Δj

Absolute roughness of fracture j.

δj

Relative roughness of fracture j.

τ

Shear stress.

τ0

Critical shear stress.

μf

Slurry viscosity.

μ0

Initial viscosity.

μ

Poisson’s ratio.

ρr

Rock density.

ρf

Slurry density.

\( \overset{\cdot }{\gamma } \)

Rate of shear strain.

εr

Rock strain.

εf

Slurry strain.

σr

Rock stress.

σf

Slurry stress.

ξi

Normalized pressure gradient.

δi

Normalized aperture increment.

ψi

Normalized flow velocity.

σi

Stress of tip i.

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was conducted with support from the National Key R&D Program of China (grant no. 2017YFC1503100), National Natural Science Foundation of China (grant no. 51879041, U1710253), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (grant no. N180105029), and Anhui Province Science and Technology Project of China (grant no. 17030901023).

References

  1. Amini A, Eghtesad AS, Sadeghy K (2016) Creeping flow of Herschel-Bulkley fluids in collapsible channels: a numerical study. Korea-Aust Rheol J 28(4):255–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Baker WH, Cording EJ, MacPherson HH (1983) Compaction grouting to control ground movement during tunneling. Underground space. Pergamon Press, New York, pp 205–212Google Scholar
  3. Bazant ZP (1984) Size effect in blunt fracture: concrete, rock, metal. J Eng Mech 110:518–535CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bouchelaghem F (2009) Multi-scale modelling of the permeability evolution of fine sands during cement suspension grouting with filtration. Comput Geotech 36(6):1058–1071CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chang X, Yf S, Zhang ZH, Tang CA, Ru ZL (2015) Behavior of propagating fracture at bedding interface in layered rocks. Eng Geol 197:33–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chang X, Wang GZ, Liang ZZ, Tang CA (2017) Study on grout cracking and interface debonding of rockbolt grouted system. Constr Build Mater 135:665–673CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chen CI, Chen CK, Yang YT (2004) Unsteady unidirectional flow of Bingham fluid between parallel plates with different given volume flow rate conditions. Appl Math Model 28(8):697–709CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chen TL, Pang TZ, Zhao Y, Zhang DL, Fang Q (2018) Numerical simulation of slurry fracturing during shield tunneling. Tun Under Sp Tech 74:153–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Christopher M (1994) Rheology principles, measurements, and applications. WILEY-VCH, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  10. El Tani M (2012) Grouting rock fractures with cement grout. Rock Mech Rock Eng 45(4):547–561CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. El Tani M, Stille H (2017) Grout spread and injection period of silica solution and cement mix in rock fractures. Rock Mech Rock Eng 50(9):2365–2380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Funehag J, Gustafson G (2008) Design of grouting with silica sol in hard rock-new methods for calculation of penetration length, part I. Tun Under Sp Tech 23(1):1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Funehag J, Thörn J (2018) Radial penetration of cementitious grout-laboratory verification of grout spread in a fracture model. Tun Under Sp Tech 72:228–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Håkansson U (1993) Rheology of fresh cement-based grouts. Doctoral thesis. In: Division of soil and rock mechanics. Department of Infrastructure and Environmental Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, SwedenGoogle Scholar
  15. Håkansson U, Hässler L, Stille H (1992) Rheological properties of microfine cement grouts. Tun Under Sp Tech 7:453–458CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Huang ML, Guan XM, Lv QF (2013) Mechanism analysis of induced fracture grouting based on elasticity. Rock and Soil Mech 34(7):2059–2064Google Scholar
  17. Kim JS, Lee IM, Jang JH, Choi H (2009) Groutability of cement-based grout with consideration of viscosity and filtration phenomenon. Int J Numer Anal Met 33(16):1771–1797CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kim HM, Lee JW, Yazdani M, Tohidi E, Nejati HR, Park ES (2018) Coupled viscous fluid flow and joint deformation analysis for grout injection in a rock joint. Rock Mech Rock Eng 51(2):627–638CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Koyama T, Neretnieks I, Jing L (2008) A numerical study on differences in using Navier-Stokes and Reynolds equations for modeling the fluid flow and particle transport in single rock fractures with shear. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 45(7):1082–1101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kristinof R, Ranjith PG, Choi SK (2010) Finite element simulation of fluid flow in fractured rock media. Environ Earth Sci 60(4):765–773CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Li SC, Zhang WJ, Zhang QS, Zhang X, Liu RT, Pan GM, Li ZP, Che ZY (2014) Research on advantage-fracture grouting mechanism and controlled grouting method in water-rich fault zone. Rock Soil Mech 35(3):744–752Google Scholar
  22. Lin JZ, Ruan XD, Chen BG, Wang JP, Zhou JZ (2013) Fluid mechanics. Tsinghua University Press, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  23. Liu QS, Lei GF, Peng XX, Li CB, Wei L (2018) Rheological characteristics of cement grout and its effect on mechanical properties of a rock fracture. Rock Mech Rock Eng 51(2):613–625CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Mohajerani S, Baghbananb A, Wang G, Forouhandeh SF (2017) An efficient algorithm for simulating grout propagation in 2D discrete fracture networks. Int J Rock Mech Min 98:67–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Multiphysics C (2014) 5.1 User guide stockholm, CFD Module. SwedenGoogle Scholar
  26. Nia AR, Lashkaripour GR, Ghafoori M (2017) Prediction of grout take using rock mass properties. Bull Eng Geol Environ 76:1643–1654CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Ozsun O, Yakhot V, Ekinci KL (2013) Non-invasive measurement of the pressure distribution in a deformable micro-channel. J Fluid Mech 734.  https://doi.org/10.1017/jfm.2013.474
  28. Rafi JY, Stille H (2014) Control of rock jacking considering spread of grout and grouting pressure. Tun Under Sp Tech 40:1–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Rikard G, Hakan S (2009) Fracture dilation during grouting. Tun Under Sp Tech 24(2):126–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ruan WJ (2005) Research on diffusion of grouting and basic properties of grouts. Chin J Rock Mech Eng 27(1):69–73Google Scholar
  31. Sharma KM, Roy DG, Singh PK, Sharma LK, Singh TN (2017) Parametric study of factors affecting fluid flow through a fracture. Arab J Geosci 10(16).  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12517-017-3142-6
  32. Sui WH, Liu JY, Hu W, Qi JF, Zhan KY (2015) Experimental investigation on sealing efficiency of chemical grouting in rock fracture with flowing water. Tun Under Sp Tech 50:139–249Google Scholar
  33. Wu D, Yang BG, Liu YC (2015) Pressure drop in loop pipe flow of fresh cemented coal gangue-fly ash slurry: experiment and simulation. Adv Powder Technol 26(3):920–927CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Xiao F, Zhao ZY, Chen HM (2017) A simplified model for predicting grout flow in fracture channels. Tun Under Sp Tech 70:11–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Xie LZ, Gao C, Ren L, Li CB (2015) Numerical investigation of geometrical and hydraulic properties in a single rock fracture during shear displacement with the Navier-Stokes equations. Environ Earth Sci 73(11):7061–7074CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Yang MJ, Yue ZQ, Lee PKK, Su B, Tham LG (2002) Prediction of grout penetration in fractured rocks by numerical simulation. Can Geotech J 39(6):1384–1394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Yang P, Li TB, Song L, Deng T, Xue SB (2016a) Effect of different factors on propagation of carbon fiber composite cement grout in a fracture with flowing water. Constr Build Mater 121:501–506CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Yang DS, Qi XY, Chen WZ, Wang SG, Dai F (2016b) Numerical investigation on the coupled gas-solid behavior of coal using an improved anisotropic permeability model. J Nat Gas Sci Eng 34:226–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Yang P, Liu YH, Gao SW, Li ZC (2018) Experiment on sealing efficiency of carbon fiber composite grout under flowing conditions. Constr Build Mater 182:43–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Yoon J, EI Mohtar CS (2015) A filtration model for evaluating maximum penetration distance of bentonite grout through granular soils. Comput Geotech 65:291–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Zhang DL (2010) A course in computational fluids dynamics. Higher Education Press, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  42. Zhang WJ, Li SC, Wei JC, Zhang QS, Zhang X, Xie DL (2015) Model tests on curtain grouting in water-rich broken rock mass. Chin J Geot Eng 37(9):1627–1634CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Zhang QS, Zhang LZ, Liu RT (2017) Grouting mechanism of quick setting slurry in rock fissure with consideration of viscosity variation with space. Tun Under Sp Tech 70:262–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Zhang WJ, Li SC, Wei JC, Zhang QS, Liu RT, Zhang X, Yin HY (2018) Grouting rock fractures with cement and sodium silicate grout. Carbonate Evaporite 33(2):211–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Zheng Z, Li SC, Liu RT, Zhu GX, Zhang LZ, Pan D (2015) Analysis of coupling effect between grout and rock mass during jointed rock grouting. Chin J Rock Mech Eng S2:4054–4062Google Scholar
  46. Zou LF, Xu WY, Meng GT, Wang HL (2018) Permeability anisotropy of columnar jointed rock masses. KSCE J Civ Eng 22(10):3802–3809CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wenqiang Mu
    • 1
    • 2
  • Lianchong Li
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Tianhong Yang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Guofeng Yu
    • 3
    • 4
  • Yunchun Han
    • 4
  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Ministry Education on Safe Mining of Deep Metal MinesNortheastern UniversityShenyangChina
  2. 2.Center of Rock Instability and Seismicity Research, School of Resources and Civil EngineeringNortheastern UniversityShenyangChina
  3. 3.State Key Laboratory of Deep Coal Mining & Environment ProtectionHuainanChina
  4. 4.Ping An Coal Mining Engineering Technology Research Institute Co., Ltd.HuainanChina

Personalised recommendations