Investigation of engineering properties for usability of Lefke stone (Osmaneli/Bilecik) as building stone

  • H. Haluk Selim
  • Ahmet KarakaşEmail author
  • Özkan Coruk
Original Paper


Lefke stone is a sandstone that has been widely used in mosques, madrasas, churches, and houses as building stone. The geological features and engineering properties of Lefke stone outcropped in the southern part of Osmaneli/Bilecik were investigated in field and laboratory studies. Samples acquired during the fieldwork were tested to determine the physical, mechanical, durability, and hygrothermal properties in the laboratory. The mean physico-mechanical properties of Lefke stone yielded apparent density of 2.38 g/cm3, specific gravity of 2.68 g/cm3, total porosity of 11.26%, 2.93% water absorption by weight, uniaxial compressive strength of 94 MPa, flexure strength of 11.45 MPa, a 3.90 MPa point load strength, 4.5–5 Mohs hardness, and field Schmidt hammer rebound value of 36. According to durability tests, Lefke stone is resistant to CaCl2 salt mist but has low resistance to SO2 aging. Salt crystals placed in the discontinuities of the rock caused slight crack growth. The stone’s resistance to crystallization of sodium sulphate salt is low, and an increase in the volume of salts crystallized in the rock results in low corner strengths. A capillary water-absorption value of 0.0016 kg/m2.h places Lefke stone into the category of very low water absorption capacity and permeability. The water vapor diffusion resistance factor (μ) less than 1 indicates that the sandstone has high breathability. Its performance in historical buildings, field observations, and values obtained through laboratory tests confirm that Lefke sandstone can be used as a building stone.


Lefke stone Building stone Sandstone Engineering properties 



The authors would like to thank the Istanbul Commerce University YAPKO unit for financing the project (grant number 2017/16-024), the Osmaneli (Bilecik) Municipality for logistical support during the fieldwork, and ITU-GAL and AKU-NSL laboratories.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Engineering Faculty, Jewelry Engineering Departmentİstanbul Commerce UniversityIstanbulTurkey
  2. 2.Engineering Faculty, Geological Engineering DepartmentKocaeli UniversityIzmitTurkey

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