Advertisement

Stability analysis of deep-buried hard rock underground laboratories based on stereophotogrammetry and discontinuity identification

  • Jing-Zhu Huang
  • Xia-Ting FengEmail author
  • Yang-Yi Zhou
  • Cheng-Xiang Yang
Original Paper
  • 71 Downloads

Abstract

In a tunnel, instabilities in the surrounding rock mostly occur within the sidewalls and crown. After acquiring the rock mass structure, a combination of laboratory experiments, numerical simulations, and in situ monitoring data can permit a more reasonable stability analysis of the surrounding rock and engineering support design to ensure a safer engineering project. To overcome the shortcomings (e.g., inefficiency, high labor costs, and safety risks) of traditional methods for mapping the rock mass structures of the sidewalls and crowns of tunnels, this study proposes a safe, rapid, and efficient method that can acquire a 3D digital elevation model (DEM) of the sidewalls and crown of a tunnel and the corresponding rock mass structures by using digital photogrammetry (DP). The proposed method was then tested in an engineering tunnel. Error analysis of check points and discontinuity orientations showed that the errors were within a reasonable range. The method was further applied to traffic tunnel #1 of the China Jinping Underground Laboratory Phase II (CJPL-II), and the spatial coordinates and orientations of the joints were obtained. A 3D quasi-deterministic discrete model was subsequently established by converting the coordinates and orientations of the joints from a geological coordinate system to a local coordinate system in discrete element software. The quasi-deterministic model was then used to confirm that the joint persistence has an important influence on the stability of the surrounding rock of a tunnel and, thus, affects the support installation. Finally, the joint persistence value was determined by the size of the onsite unstable block. The results of this study provide a reference for the design, construction, and support of similar deep-buried jointed hard rock tunnels.

Keywords

Discontinuity Photogrammetry Stability analysis Underground laboratory 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41320104005, 11232024, and 51579043) and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (N160103007). We are particularly grateful for the kind assistance provided by Prof. Shi-Li Qiu.

References

  1. Alameda-Hernández P, El Hamdouni R, Irigaray C, Chacón J (2017) Weak foliated rock slope stability analysis with ultra-close-range terrestrial digital photogrammetry. Bull Eng Geol Environ, pp 1–15.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10064-017-1119-z
  2. Barton N (1978) Suggested methods for the quantitative description of discontinuities in rock masses. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci Geomech Abstr 15(6):319–368Google Scholar
  3. Bieniawski ZT (1989) Engineering rock mass classifications. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  4. Birch JS (2006) Using 3DM analyst mine mapping suite for rock face characterization. In: Tonon F, Kottenstette (eds) Paper presented at the workshop “Laser and photogrammetric methods for rock face characterization”, Golden, Colorado, June 2006, pp 13–32Google Scholar
  5. Brideau MA, Chauvin S, Andrieux P, Stead D (2012) Influence of 3D statistical discontinuity variability on slope stability conditions. In: Eberhardt E, Froese C, Turner K, Leroueil S (eds) Landslides and engineered slopes: protecting society through improved understanding, pp 587–593Google Scholar
  6. Cacciari PP, Futai MM (2016) Mapping and characterization of rock discontinuities in a tunnel using 3D terrestrial laser scanning. Bull Eng Geol Environ 75:223–237.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10064-015-0748-3 Google Scholar
  7. Cacciari PP, Futai MM (2017) Modeling a shallow rock tunnel using terrestrial laser scanning and discrete fracture networks. Rock Mech Rock Eng 50(5):1217–1242Google Scholar
  8. China Hydropower Engineering Consulting Group, East China Investigation and Design Institute (2005) Jinping hydropower station feasibility study report—3. Eng Geol 2:P87 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  9. Coggan J, Gwynn XP, Pine RJ, Wetherelt A (2008) Rock mass characterisation: is there a role for remote mapping techniques? In: Proceedings of the Remote Sensing and Photogrammetry Society Conference, Falmouth, UK, September 2008Google Scholar
  10. Crosta G (1997) Evaluating rock mass geometry from photographic images. Rock Mech Rock Eng 30(1):35–58Google Scholar
  11. CSIRO (2012) Siro3D, 3D imaging system manual, version 5.0. CSIRO Division of Exploration and Mining. http://www.dataminesoftware.com/sirovision/
  12. Fekete S (2010) Geotechnical applications of LiDAR for geomechanical characterization in drill and blast tunnels and representative 3-dimensional discontinuum modelling. Doctoral dissertation, Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  13. Fekete S, Diederichs M (2013) Integration of three-dimensional laser scanning with discontinuum modelling for stability analysis of tunnels in blocky rockmasses. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 57:11–23Google Scholar
  14. Feng XT, Zhang CQ, Li SJ, Qiu SL, Zhang CS (2013) Dynamic design method for deep tunnels at hard rocks. Science Press, Beijing (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  15. Feng XT, Wu SY, Li SJ, Qiu SL, Xiao YX, Feng GL, Shen MB, Zeng XH (2016) Comprehensive field monitoring of deep tunnels at Jinping underground laboratory (CJPL-II) in China. Chin J Rock Mech Eng 35(4):649–657 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  16. Feng XT, Pei SF, Jiang Q, Zhou YY, Li SJ, Yao ZB (2017) Deep fracturing of the hard rock surrounding a large underground cavern subjected to high geostress: in situ observation and mechanism analysis. Rock Mech Rock Eng 50(8):2155–2175Google Scholar
  17. Ferrero AM, Forlani G, Roncella R, Voyat HI (2009) Advanced geostructural survey methods applied to rock mass characterization. Rock Mech Rock Eng 42(4):631–665Google Scholar
  18. Gaich A, Pötsch M, Schubert W (2006) Basics and application of 3D imaging systems with conventional and high-resolution cameras. In: Tonon F, Kottenstette (eds) Paper presented at the workshop “Laser and photogrammetric methods for rock face characterization”, Golden, Colorado, June 2006, pp 33–48Google Scholar
  19. Geological Society Engineering Group Working Party (1977) The description of rock masses for engineering purposes. Q J Eng Geol 10:355–388Google Scholar
  20. Goodman RE (1989) Introduction to rock mechanics. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  21. Haneberg WC (2008) Using close range terrestrial digital photogrammetry for 3-D rock slope modeling and discontinuity mapping in the United States. Bull Eng Geol Environ 67(4):457–469Google Scholar
  22. Havaej M, Coggan J, Stead D, Elmo D (2016) A combined remote sensing–numerical modelling approach to the stability analysis of Delabole Slate Quarry, Cornwall, UK. Rock Mech Rock Eng 49(4):1227–1245Google Scholar
  23. Hoek E (2007) Practical rock engineering. Available online at: http://www.rocscience.com
  24. Hudson JA (1989) Rock mechanics principles in engineering practice. Butterworths, LondonGoogle Scholar
  25. Itasca Consulting Group, Inc. (2007) 3DEC—three-dimensional distinct element code, version 4.1. Itasca Consulting Group, Inc., Minneapolis, MinnesotaGoogle Scholar
  26. Jiang Q, Feng XT, Fan Y, Fan Q, Liu G, Pei S, Duan S (2017) In situ experimental investigation of basalt spalling in a large underground powerhouse cavern. Tunn Undergr Space Technol 68:82–94Google Scholar
  27. Jiang Q, Su G, Feng XT, Chen G, Zhang MZ, Liu C (2018) Excavation optimization and stability analysis for large underground caverns under high geostress: a case study of the Chinese Laxiwa project. Rock Mech Rock Eng, pp 1–21Google Scholar
  28. Kim BH, Cai M, Kaiser PK, Yang HS (2007) Estimation of block sizes for rock masses with non-persistent joints. Rock Mech Rock Eng 40(2):169Google Scholar
  29. Kolecka N (2011) Photo-based 3D scanning vs. laser scanning–competitive data acquisition methods for digital terrain modelling of steep mountain slopes. Int Arch Photogramm Remote Sens Spat Inf Sci 38(4):203–208Google Scholar
  30. Krosley L, Oerter E, Ortiz T (2006) Digital ground-based photogrammetry for measuring discontinuity orientations in steep rock exposures. In: Golden Rocks 2006, the 41st U.S. Symposium on Rock Mechanics (USRMS), Golden, Colorado, June 2006. American Rock Mechanics AssociationGoogle Scholar
  31. Leica Geosystems (2013) Leica FlexLine. TS09 user manual. Leica Geosystems, Heerbrugg, Switzerland. Available online at: http://surveyequipment.com/PDFs/Leica_FlexLine_UserManual.pdf. Accessed 5 Aug 2013
  32. Lee CH, Chiu YC, Wang TT, Huang TH (2013) Application and validation of simple image-mosaic technology for interpreting cracks on tunnel lining. Tunn Undergr Space Technol 34:61–72Google Scholar
  33. Leu SS, Chang SL (2005) Digital image processing based approach for tunnel excavation faces. Autom Constr 14(6):750–765Google Scholar
  34. Martin CD, Tannant DD, Lan H (2007) Comparison of terrestrial-based, high resolution, LiDAR and digital photogrammetry surveys of a rock slope. In: Eberhardt E, Stead D, Morrison T (eds) Proceedings of the 1st Canada-U.S. Rock Mechanics Symposium, Vancouver, Canada, May 2007. Taylor & Francis, London, vol 1, pp 37–44Google Scholar
  35. Menéndez-Díaz A, Argüelles-Fraga R, García-Cortés S, Ordóñez-Galán C (2016) Stability analysis of a tunnel using LIDAR data and the keyblock method. Bull Eng Geol Environ 75:469–483.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10064-015-0761-6 Google Scholar
  36. Priest SD, Hudson JA (1976) Discontinuity spacings in rock. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci Geomech Abstr 13:135–148Google Scholar
  37. Rocscience Inc. (2003) Dips, version 5.105. http://www.rocscience.com
  38. Song JJ, Lee CI, Seto M (2001) Stability analysis of rock blocks around a tunnel using a statistical joint modeling technique. Tunn Undergr Space Technol 16(4):341–351Google Scholar
  39. Sturzenegger M, Stead D (2009a) Close-range terrestrial digital photogrammetry and terrestrial laser scanning for discontinuity characterization on rock cuts. Eng Geol 106(3–4):163–182Google Scholar
  40. Sturzenegger M, Stead D (2009b) Quantifying discontinuity orientation and persistence on high mountain rock slopes and large landslides using terrestrial remote sensing techniques. Nat Hazards Earth Syst Sci 9(2):267–287Google Scholar
  41. Sturzenegger M, Yan M, Stead D, Elmo D (2007) Application and limitations of ground-based laser scanning in rock slope characterization. In: Eberhardt E, Stead D, Morrison T (eds) Proceedings of the 1st Canada-U.S. Rock Mechanics Symposium, Vancouver, Canada, May 2007. Taylor & Francis, London, vol 1, pp 29–36Google Scholar
  42. The National Standards Compilation Group of People’s Republic of China (1995) GB50218-94. Standard for engineering classification of rock masses. China Planning Press, Beijing (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  43. Tokiwa T, Tsusaka K, Matsubara M, Ishikawa T (2014) Fracture characterization around a gallery in soft sedimentary rock in Horonobe URL of Japan. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 65:1–7Google Scholar
  44. Vazaios I, Vlachopoulos N, Diederichs MS (2017) Integration of Lidar-based structural input and discrete fracture network generation for underground applications. Geotech Geol Eng 35(5):2227–2251Google Scholar
  45. Wang F, Chen J, Fu X, Shi B (2008) Study on geometrical information of obtaining rock mass discontinuities based on VirtuoZo. Chin J Rock Mech Eng 27(1):169–175 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  46. Wang S, Ni P, Guo M (2013) Spatial characterization of joint planes and stability analysis of tunnel blocks. Tunn Undergr Space Technol 38:357–367Google Scholar
  47. Wichmann V, Strauhal T, Fey C, Perzlmaier S (2018) Derivation of space-resolved normal joint spacing and in situ block size distribution data from terrestrial LIDAR point clouds in a rugged Alpine relief (Kühtai, Austria). Bull Eng Geol Environ.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10064-018-1374-7
  48. Wyllie DC, Mah CW (2004) Rock slope engineering civil and mining, 4th edn. Spon Press, Taylor & Francis Group, LondonGoogle Scholar
  49. Zeybek M, Şanlıoğlu İ (2015) Accurate determination of the Taşkent (Konya, Turkey) landslide using a long-range terrestrial laser scanner. Bull Eng Geol Environ 74:61–76.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10064-014-0592-x Google Scholar
  50. Zhang L, Einstein HH (1998) Estimating the mean trace length of rock discontinuities. Rock Mech Rock Eng 31(4):217–235.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s006030050022 Google Scholar
  51. Zhang L, Einstein HH (2000) Estimating the intensity of rock discontinuities. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 37:819–837.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1365-1609(00)00022-8 Google Scholar
  52. Zhu H, Wu W, Chen J, Ma G, Liu X, Zhuang X (2016) Integration of three dimensional discontinuous deformation analysis (DDA) with binocular photogrammetry for stability analysis of tunnels in blocky rockmass. Tunn Undergr Space Technol 51:30–40Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jing-Zhu Huang
    • 1
  • Xia-Ting Feng
    • 1
    Email author
  • Yang-Yi Zhou
    • 1
  • Cheng-Xiang Yang
    • 1
  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education on Safe Mining of Deep Metal MinesNortheastern UniversityShenyangPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations