## Abstract

Effective optical constants such as an effective index are useful figures in analyzing and designing subwavelength optical elements. However, its definition and practical usage in everyday work are not always straightforward as expected, in particular in visible light frequencies. We compare several different approaches to the concept of effective media and discuss its practicality and problems associated.

## Keywords

Diffractive optics Effective medium theory Subwavelength structures Metamaterials## Notes

### Acknowledgements

The author is deeply indebted to Yuya Hino, currently with SUBARU Co., for his contribution at the early stage of this research as a postgraduate student in his laboratory of Ehime University.

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