Advertisement

Granular Matter

, 21:104 | Cite as

A review and analysis of granular shear experiments under low effective stress conditions

  • Xiaohui Cheng
  • Shize Xiao
  • Alex Sixie Cao
  • Meiying HouEmail author
Original Paper
  • 194 Downloads
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. In Memoriam of Robert P. Behringer, late Editor in Chief of Granular Matter

Abstract

The constitutive law for granular materials is governed mainly by the intergranular friction, which depends strongly on the gravitational force or effective isotropic stress. Such experiments are mostly performed with relatively high effective isotropic stress. This fact poses serious limitations on the formulation of a materially objective constitutive model based on experiments performed on earth. This paper analyzes the limited experimental data of shear strength and rheology of granular materials, subject to low effective stress conditions obtained in microgravity μg as well as in 1 g conditions. Results from these experiments show that granular materials may have an extremely high macroscopic peak friction angle and clear nonlinear S-shape non-Bingham fluidity in low effective stress conditions. In this paper, the classical limit equilibrium method is employed, and a rheological constitutive model is used to study experimental data. The limit equilibrium method enables the authors to correlate the bearing capacity of sand foundation with high peak friction angles under varying effective stress conditions. The calibrated analytical solution for the rheological constitutive model under low effective stress conditions, predicts a clear S-shape correlation of the viscous shear stress and shear strain rate. The mutation or inflection point takes place around the in-situ Niigata earthquake shear strain rate. The results of this paper are of great relevance to the assessment of seismic liquefaction hazards of infrastructure on earth.

Keywords

Granular material Low confining pressure Microgravity Shearing Rheology Liquefaction 

Notes

Acknowledgement

This project is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. U1738120 and 11474326). The authors would like to thank Qilin Wu for his help on manuscript compiling.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

We certify that there is no actual or potential conflict of interest in relation to this article.

References

  1. 1.
    O’Hern, C.S., Silbert, L.E., Liu, A.J., Nagel, S.R.: Jamming at zero temperature and zero applied stress: the epitome of disorder. Phys. Rev. E 68, 011306 (2003)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Sture, S., Costes, N.C., Batiste, S.N., Lankton, M.R., Alshibli, K.A., Jeremic, B., Swanson, R.A., Frank, M.: Mechanics of granular materials at low effective stresses. J. Aerosp. Eng. 11, 67–72 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kobayashi, T., Ochiai, H., Suyama, Y., Aoki, S., Yasufuku, N., Omine, K.: Bearing capacity of shallow foundations in a low gravity environment. Soils Found. 49, 115–134 (2009).  https://doi.org/10.3208/sandf.49.115 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Towhata, I., Anh, T.T.L., Yamada, S., Motamed, R., obayashi, Y.: Zero-gravity triaxial shear tests on mechanical properties of liquefied sand and performance assessment of mitigations against large ground deformation. In: International Conferences on Recent Advances in Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics, Missouri University of Science and Technology, San Diego, California (2010).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Murdoch, N., Rozitis, B., Green, S.F., De Lophem, T.L., Michel, P., Losert, W.: Granular shear flow in varying gravitational environments. Granul. Matter 15, 129–137 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Towhata, I., Vargas-Monge, W., Orense, R.P., Yao, M.: Shaking table tests on subgrade reaction of pipe embedded in sandy liquefied subsoil. Soil Dyn. Earthq. Eng. 18, 347–361 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Motamed, R., Towhata, I., Honda, T., Tabata, K., Abe, A.: Pile group response to liquefaction-induced lateral spreading: E-defense large shake table test. Soil Dyn. Earthq. Eng. 51, 35–46 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Otake, K., Guo, S., Matsushima, T.: Experiments of cylinder drag through density-matching particle-fluid mixture and SPH simulation. J. Jpn. Soc. Civ. Eng. Ser. A 2 72, I_399–I_407 (2017).  https://doi.org/10.2208/jscejam.72.I_399 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Geng, J., Behringer, R.P.: Slow drag in two-dimensional granular media. Phys. Rev. E 71, 011302 (2005)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Albert, R., Pfeifer, M.A., Barabasi, A.L., Schiffer, P.: Slow drag in a granular medium. Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 205 (1999)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bagnold, R.A.: Experiments on gravity-free dispersion of large solid spheres in a Newtonian fluid under shear. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. Ser. A 225, 49–63 (1954).  https://doi.org/10.1098/rspa.1954.0186 CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Roscoe, K.H., Schofield, A.N., Wroth, C.P.: On the yielding of soils. Geotechnique 8, 22–53 (1958)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Forterre, Y., Pouliquen, O.: Flows of dense granular media. Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 40, 1–24 (2008)MathSciNetCrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Brewster, R.: On dense granular flows. Eur. Phys. J. E 14, 341–365 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Jiang, Y., Liu, M.: Granular solid hydrodynamics. Granul. Matter 11, 139 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Atkinson, J.H.: The mechanics of engineering soils. Eng. Geol. 11, 250–250 (1966)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Singh, A., Magnanimo, V., Saitoh, K., Luding, S.: The role of gravity or pressure and contact stiffness in granular rheology. New J. Phys. 17, 043028 (2015)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Jeremić, B., Runesson, K., Sture, S.: Finite deformation analysis of geomaterials. Int. J. Numer. Anal. Methods Geomech. 25, 809–840 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Sato, A., Tanaka, K., Shiote, T., Sasa, K.: Quantification of physical properties of the transitional phenomena in rock from X-ray CT image data. Adv. Comput. Tomogr. Geomater. (2013).  https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118557723.ch26 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Gallage, C.P.K., Towhata, I., Nishimura, S.: Laboratory investigation on rate-dependent properties of sand undergoing low confining effective stress. 地盤工学会論文報告集 45, 43 60 (2005).  https://doi.org/10.3208/sandf.45.4_43 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Zhang, X.: Prandtl and Terzaghi bearing capacity formulas of a strip footing solved by slip—line method of plasticity. J. Tianjin Univ. 2, 92–100 (1987)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Terzaghi, K., Terzaghi, K.P., Ralph, B., Terzaghi, K.P., Ralph, B.: Theoretical Soil Mechanics. Wiley, Hoboken (1965)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Cheng, G.Y., Qiu, R., Duan, C.: Analytical formula of K. Terzaghi ultimate bearing capacity coefficient under totally coarse foundation base. J. Civ. Aviat. Univ. China. 29(1), 25–28 (2011)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Pouliquen, O.: Scaling laws in granular flows down rough inclined planes. Phys Fluids 11, 542–548 (1999)MathSciNetCrossRefADSGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Civil EngineeringTsinghua UniversityBeijingChina
  2. 2.Department of Structural EngineeringNorwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU)TrondheimNorway
  3. 3.Key Laboratory of Soft Matter Physics, Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of PhysicsChinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  4. 4.Institute of Modern PhysicsChinese Academy of ScienceLanzhouChina

Personalised recommendations