Granular Matter

, 21:7 | Cite as

Laboratory study on the compressibility of sand–rubber mixtures under one dimensional consolidation loading conditions

  • Ismail BenessalahEmail author
  • Ahmed Arab
  • Marwan Sadek
  • Rachid Bouferra
Original Paper


The continuous increase of road traffic needs in both developed and developing countries is accompanied by an important growth of highway transportation networks and consequently produce a huge amount of waste tires, and causes numerous environmental issues. On the other hand, due to their lightweight and high damping performance, several researchers are interested in the use of the soil–rubber mixtures for the attenuation of earthquake motions and ground vibrations by their capacity to absorb the external solicitations. However, several questions arise regarding the mechanical behaviour of the soil–rubber mixtures. This paper presents a thorough study on the impact of scrap tire addition on physical properties of Chlef sandy soil. A series of laboratory tests are conducted on sand–rubber mixtures with various percentage of crumb rubber: 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% by a dry weight. Oedometric tests are carried out in order to explore the influence of rubber particles on the sand compaction and consolidation with focusing on the compressibility parameter. The experimental tests show that the increase of the percentage of crumb rubber leads to an increase of both the compression index Cc and the swelling index Cs of sand–rubber mixtures, contrariwise, a slight decrease in the preconsolidation pressure and the oedometric modulus is observed.


Sand–rubber mixtures Oedometric tests Compressibility Mechanical behaviour Swelling 



Coefficient of uniformity


Coefficient of curvature


Fine content


Friction angle


Void ratio


Initial void ratio corresponding to H0


Increment of vertical strain


Final settlement for the loading increment (i.e. the change in sample height)


Initial high of the specimens


Maximum void ratio


Minimum void ratio

Log σ

Logarithmic of the vertical loading


Mean grain size


Plasticity index of the fine content


Relative density


Unit weight of the solid grain


Rubber content


Specific weight of rubber


Preconsolidation pressure


Compression index


Swelling index


Oedometric modulus


Unified soil classification system


Sand poorly graduated


Volume of the oedometric cell


Mass of the sand–rubber mixture on the oedometric cell


Coefficient of consolidation


Percentage of consolidation


Consolidation time corresponding to U = 90%


The time factor for the consolidation curve


Thickness of specimen at 90% consolidation



The authors would like to thank the reviewers for their constructive and detailed comments. Tests were performed in the Laboratory of Material Sciences and Environment (LsmE) at UHBC University of Chlef. The authors express their gratitude to all who assist in the preparation of this paper.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.LsmE, Laboratory of Materials Sciences and EnvironmentUniv. UHBC of ChlefChlefAlgeria
  2. 2.LGCgE, Laboratory of Civil Engineering and Geo-EnvironmentUniversity of LilleLilleFrance
  3. 3.Doctoral School of Sciences and TechnologiesLebanese UniversityBeirutLebanon
  4. 4.Faculty of Sciences and TechnologyMarrakech UniversityMarrakechMorocco

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