Advertisement

Ecosystems

pp 1–15 | Cite as

Summer Redox Dynamics in a Eutrophic Reservoir and Sensitivity to a Summer’s End Drawdown Event

  • Bridget R. DeemerEmail author
  • John A. Harrison
Article

Abstract

In eutrophic lakes and reservoirs, reduced mixing during stratified conditions limits oxygen (O2) supply to the hypolimnion (that is, bottom waters). In the absence of an O2 supply, microbial decomposers consume alternative electron acceptors, generally in order of their thermodynamic favorability, releasing soluble, reduced manganese (Mn), iron (Fe) and methane (CH4) to the water column with implications for reservoir water quality and greenhouse gas dynamics. Still, there are very few studies that quantify intra- and inter-annual controls on lake and reservoir redox chemistry, especially in managed systems. To address this knowledge gap, we examined redox-sensitive water column chemistry before and during four summer’s end water-level drawdown events (~ 2 m in magnitude) in a eutrophic reservoir. We observed lower dissolved Fe and CH4 concentrations in years with higher hypolimnion O2 and NO3, suggesting that water column oxidant availability controls the extent of the redox cascade. During drawdowns, dissolved CH4, Mn and Fe concentrations increased in the hypolimnion (on average by 50%, 40% and 175%, respectively) concomitant with order of magnitude increases in methane bubbling rates (that is, ebullition). To our knowledge, this is the first in situ evidence for enhanced flushing of sediment pore water into a reservoir during water-level drawdowns. Furthermore, the mass of CH4, Mn and Fe released varied as a function of summertime redox conditions. Thus, the timing of reservoir water-level drawdowns may determine the degree to which reduced solutes enter the water column during drawdown, with longer pre-drawdown periods of hypolimnion hypoxia leading to higher solute fluxes.

Keywords

ebullition iron management manganese redox cascade reservoir methane water level 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank Homer Adams, Sarah Anderson, Joshua Arnold, Rebecca Bellmore, Keith Birchfield, Melissa Boyd, Alyson Day, Francesca Frattaroli, Dawn Freeman, Kara Goodwin, Alice Harwood, Andrew Harwood, Stephen Henderson, Allison Jacobs, Tammy Lee, Abby Lunstrum, Michelle McCrackin, Cody Miller, Reed Norton, Maria O’Malley, Matt Schult, Natalie Selstad, Michelle Shafer, Emily Ury and Francesca Wignes for valuable help with field and laboratory work. Charles Knaack and Scott Boroughs provided advice and assistance with the ICP-MS, and Cailin Huyck Orr and Leif Sivertsen provided help with the GC. Charles Yackulic and Mike Dodrill provided input regarding the glm modeling. Thanks also to Moose Lodge, Georgia Pacific, the City of Camas and the Lacamas Shores Neighborhood Association. Marc Beutel, Amy Burgin, Lee Bryant, Dan Reed and Stephen Henderson provided valuable comments on initial drafts of this manuscript. This work was funded by NSF-IGERT and EPA-STAR fellowships to B. Deemer as well as a U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Climate Preparedness and Resilience Programs grant, a National Science Foundation (NSF) ETBC Grant #1045286 and a NSF DEB Grant #1355211 to J. Harrison.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

10021_2019_362_MOESM1_ESM.docx (1.6 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 1680 kb)
10021_2019_362_MOESM2_ESM.xlsx (46 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (XLSX 45 kb)

References

  1. Austin JA, Colman SM. 2007. Lake Superior summer water temperatures are increasing more rapidly than regional air temperatures: A positive ice-albedo feedback. Geophysical Research Letters.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2006GL029021.Google Scholar
  2. Baldwin DS, Gigney H, Wilson JS, Watson G, Boulding AN. 2008. Drivers of water quality in a large water storage reservoir during a period of extreme drawdown. Water Research 42:4711–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Beaulieu JJ, Balz DA, Birchfield MK, Harrison JA, Nietch CT, Platz MC, Squier WC, Waldo S, Walker JT, White KM, Young JL. 2017. Effects of an experimental water-level drawdown on methane emissions from a eutrophic reservoir. Ecosystems 21:657–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Beutel MW. 2006. Inhibition of ammonia release from anoxic profundal sediments in lakes using hypolimnetic oxygenation. Ecological Engineering 28:271–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Beutel M, Dent S, Reed B, Marshall P, Gebremariam S, Moore B, Cross B, Gantzer P, Shallenberger E. 2014. Effects of hypolimnetic oxygen addition on mercury bioaccumulation in Twin Lakes, Washington, USA. Science of The Total Environment 496:688–700.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Blomqvist A, Gunnars A, Elmgren R. 2004. Why the limiting nutrient differs between temperate coastal seas and freshwater lakes: A matter of salt. Limnology and Oceanography 49:2236–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Boström B, Andersen JM, Fleischer S, Jansson M. 1988. Exchange of phosphorus across the sediment-water interface. In: Phosphorus in Freshwater Ecosystems. Springer, pp 229–244.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-3109-1_14. Accessed 31 Jan 2016.
  8. Bryant LD, Lorrai C, McGinnis D, Brand A, Wüest A, Little JC. 2010. Variable sediment oxygen uptake in response to dynamic forcing. Limnology and Oceanography 55:950–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bryant LD, Hsu-Kim H, Gantzer PA, Little JC. 2011. Solving the problem at the source: Controlling Mn release at the sediment-water interface via hypolimnetic oxygenation. Water Research 45:6381–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Burgin AJ, Yang WH, Hamilton SK, Silver WL. 2011. Beyond carbon and nitrogen: how the microbial energy economy couples elemental cycles in diverse ecosystems. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 9:44–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Çalışkan A, Elçi Ş. 2009. Effects of Selective Withdrawal on Hydrodynamics of a Stratified Reservoir. Water Resources Management 23:1257–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Davison W, Phillips N, Tabner BJ. 1999. Soluble iron sulfide species in natural waters: reappraisal of their stoichiometry and stability constants. Aquatic Sciences-Research Across Boundaries 61:23–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Deemer BR, Harrison JA, Whitling EW. 2011. Microbial dinitrogen and nitrous oxide production in a small eutrophic reservoir: An in situ approach to quantifying hypolimnetic process rates. Limnology and Oceanography 56:1189–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Deemer BR, Henderson SM, Harrison JA. 2015. Chemical mixing in the bottom boundary layer of a eutrophic reservoir: The effects of internal seiching on nitrogen dynamics: Chemical mixing in the bottom boundary layer. Limnology and Oceanography 60:1642–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Díaz RJ, Rosenberg R. 2011. Introduction to environmental and economic consequences of hypoxia. International Journal of Water Resources Development 27:71–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Effler SW, Matthews DA. 2008. Implications of redox processes for the rehabilitation of an urban lake, Onondaga Lake, New York. Lake and Reservoir Management 24:122–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Fenchel T, King GM, Blackburn TH. 2012. Bacterial Biogeochemistry. 3rd edn. London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  18. Fritz BG, Arntzen EV. 2007. Effect of rapidly changing river stage on uranium flux through the hyporheic zone. Ground Water 45:753–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gerling AB, Munger ZW, Doubek JP, Hamre KD, Gantzer PA, Little JC, Carey CC. 2016. Whole-catchment manipulations of internal and external loading reveal the sensitivity of a century-old reservoir to hypoxia. Ecosystems 19:555–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hafeman D, Factor-Litvak P, Cheng Z, van Geen A, Ahsan H. 2007. Association between manganese exposure through drinking water and infant mortality in Bangladesh. Environmental Health Perspectives 115:1107–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hamilton SK, Bruesewitz DA, Horst GP, Weed DB, Sarnelle O. 2009. Biogenic calcite–phosphorus precipitation as a negative feedback to lake eutrophication. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 66:343–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Harrison J, Matson P. 2003. Patterns and controls of nitrous oxide emissions from waters draining a subtropical agricultural valley. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 17:1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Harrison JA, Matson PA, Fendorf SE. 2005. Effects of a diel oxygen cycle on nitrogen transformations and greenhouse gas emissions in a eutrophied subtropical stream. Aquatic Sciences 67:308–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Harrison JA, Deemer BR, Birchfield MK, O’Malley MT. 2017. Reservoir water-level drawdowns accelerate and amplify methane emission. Environmental Science & Technology 51:1267–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hartig F. 2018. DHARMa: Residual diagnostics for hierarchical (multi-level/mixed) regression models. R package version 0.2.0. http://florianhartig.github.io/DHARMa/.
  26. Hayes NM, Deemer BR, Corman JR, Razavi NR, Strock KE. 2017. Key differences between lakes and reservoirs modify climate signals: A case for a new conceptual model: Lakes and reservoirs modify climate signals. Limnology and Oceanography Letters 2:47–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Haynes WM. 2014. CRC handbook of chemistry and physics. Boca Raton: CRC Press.Google Scholar
  28. Henderson SM, Deemer BR. 2012. Vertical propagation of lakewide internal waves. Geophysical Research Letters 39:1–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Idso SB. 1973. On the concept of Lake Stability. Limnology and Oceanography 18:681–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kennedy RH, Cooke GD. 1982. Control of lake phosphorus with aluminum sulfate: dose determination and application techniques. Water Resources Bulletin 18:389–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Klein S. 2006. Sediment porewater exchange and solute release during ebullition. Marine Chemistry 102:60–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Lenz C, Jilbert T, Conley DJ, Wolthers M, Slomp CP. 2015. Are recent changes in sediment manganese sequestration in the euxinic basins of the Baltic Sea linked to the expansion of hypoxia? Biogeosciences 12:4875–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Maeck A, Hofmann H, Lorke A. 2014. Pumping methane out of aquatic sediments- ebullition forcing mechanisms in an impounded river. Biogeosciences 11:2925–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Matthews DA, Effler SW, Driscoll CT, O’Donnell SM, Matthews CM. 2008. Electron budgets for the hypolimnion of a recovering urban lake, 1989–2004: Response to changes in organic carbon deposition and availability of electron acceptors. Limnology and Oceanography 53:743–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Mattson MD, Likens GE. 1993. Redox reactions of organic matter decomposition in a soft water lake. Biogeochemistry 19:149–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Matzinger A, Müller B, Niederhauser P, Schmid M, Wüest A. 2010. Hypolimnetic oxygen consumption by sediment-based reduced substances in former eutrophic lakes. Limnology and Oceanography 55:2073–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. McGinnis DF, Greinert J, Artemov Y, Beaubien SE, Wüest A. 2006. Fate of rising methane bubbles in stratified waters: How much methane reaches the atmosphere? Journal of Geophysical Research 111:1–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Müller B, Bryant LD, Matzinger A, Wüest A. 2012. Hypolimnetic oxygen depletion in eutrophic lakes. Environmental Science & Technology 46:9964–71.Google Scholar
  39. Naselli-Flores L, Barone R. 2005. Water-level fluctuations in Mediterranean Reservoirs: setting a dewatering threshold as a management tool to improve water quality. Hydrobiologia 548:85–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. O’Reilly CM, Sharma S, Gray DK, Hampton SE, Read JS, Rowley RJ, Schneider P, Lenters JD, McIntyre PB, Kraemer BM, Weyhenmeyer GA, Straile D, Dong B, Adrian R, Allan MG, Anneville O, Arvola L, Austin J, Bailey JL, Baron JS, Brookes JD, de Eyto E, Dokulil MT, Hamilton DP, Havens K, Hetherington AL, Higgins SN, Hook S, Izmest’eva LR, Joehnk KD, Kangur K, Kasprzak P, Kumagai M, Kuusisto E, Leshkevich G, Livingstone DM, MacIntyre S, May L, Melack JM, Mueller-Navarra DC, Naumenko M, Noges P, Noges T, North RP, Plisnier P-D, Rigosi A, Rimmer A, Rogora M, Rudstam LG, Rusak JA, Salmaso N, Samal NR, Schindler DE, Schladow SG, Schmid M, Schmidt SR, Silow E, Soylu ME, Teubner K, Verburg P, Voutilainen A, Watkinson A, Williamson CE, Zhang G. 2015. Rapid and highly variable warming of lake surface waters around the globe. Geophysical Research Letters 42:10773–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Pekel J, Cottam A, Gorelick N, Belward AS. 2016. High-resolution mapping of global surface water and its long-term changes. Nature 540:418–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Reed DC, Deemer BR, van Grinsven S, Harrison JA. 2017. Are elusive anaerobic pathways key methane sinks in eutrophic lakes and reservoirs? Biogeochemistry 134:29–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Robertson DM, Imberger J. 1994. Lake number, a quantitative indicator of mixing used to estimate changes in dissolved oxygen. Int. Rev. ges. Hydrobiol. 79:159–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Sawyer AH, Cardenas MB, Bomar A, Mackey M. 2009. Impact of dam operations on hyporheic exchange in the riparian zone of a regulated river. Hydrological Processes 23:2129–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Schnabel J, Hutton B. 2004. Lacamas Lake: Nutrient loading and in-lake conditions. In: Clark County NPDES Clean Water Program. Clark County, WA.Google Scholar
  46. Schwertmann U. 1991. Solubility and dissolution of iron oxides. In: Chen Y, Hadar Y, editors. Iron Nutrition and Interactions in Plants: ‘Proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium on Iron Nutrition and Interactions in Plants’, 11–17 June 1989, Jerusalem, Israel, 1989. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands. pp 3–27.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-011-3294-7_1.
  47. Valdespino-Castillo PM, Merino-Ibarra M, Jiménez-Contreras J, Castillo-Sandoval FS, Ramírez-Zierold JA. 2014. Community metabolism in a deep (stratified) tropical reservoir during a period of high water-level fluctuations. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 186:6505–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Vautard R, Cattiaux J, Yiou P, Thépaut J, Ciais P. 2010. Northern Hemisphere atmospheric stilling partly attributed to an increase in surface roughness. Nature Geoscience 3:756–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Wanninkhof R. 1992. Relationship between wind speed and gas exchange over the ocean. Journal of Geophysical Research- Oceans 97:7373–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Winslow L, Read J, Woolway R, Brentrup J, Leach T, Zwart J. 2015. rLakeAnalyzer: Package for the analysis of Lake Physics. http://CRAN.R-project.org/package=rLakeAnalyzer.
  51. Woolway RI, Meinson P, Nõges P, Jones ID, Laas A. 2017. Atmospheric stilling leads to prolonged thermal stratification in a large shallow polymictic lake. Climatic Change 141:759–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Wüest A, Lorke A. 2003. Small-scale hydrodynamics in lakes. Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics 35:373–412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Zarfl C, Lumsdon AE, Berlekamp J, Tydecks L, Tockner K. 2014. A global boom in hydropower dam construction. Aquat Sci 77:161–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Zohary T, Ostrovsky I. 2011. Ecological impacts of excessive water level fluctuations in stratified freshwater lakes. Inland Waters 1:47–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of the EnvironmentWashington State University, VancouverVancouverUSA
  2. 2.U.S. Geological Survey, Southwest Biological Science CenterFlagstaffUSA

Personalised recommendations