Advertisement

Ecosystems

, Volume 22, Issue 6, pp 1381–1392 | Cite as

Boreal Forest Floor Greenhouse Gas Emissions Across a Pleurozium schreberi-Dominated, Wildfire-Disturbed Chronosequence

  • Kelly E. MasonEmail author
  • Simon Oakley
  • Lorna E. Street
  • María Arróniz-Crespo
  • David L. Jones
  • Thomas H. DeLuca
  • Nicholas J. Ostle
Article

Abstract

The boreal forest is a globally critical biome for carbon cycling. Its forests are shaped by wildfire events that affect ecosystem properties and climate feedbacks including greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Improved understanding of boreal forest floor processes is needed to predict the impacts of anticipated increases in fire frequency, severity, and extent. In this study, we examined relationships between time since last wildfire (TSF), forest floor soil properties, and GHG emissions (CO2, CH4, N2O) along a Pleurozium schreberi-dominated chronosequence in mid- to late succession located in northern Sweden. Over three growing seasons in 2012–2014, GHG flux measurements were made in situ and samples were collected for laboratory analyses. We predicted that P. schreberi-covered forest floor GHG fluxes would be related to distinct trends in the soil properties and microbial community along the wildfire chronosequence. Although we found no overall effect of TSF on GHG emissions, there was evidence that soil C/N, one of the few properties to show a trend with time, was inversely linked to ecosystem respiration. We also found that local microclimatic conditions and site-dependent properties were better predictors of GHG fluxes than TSF. This shows that site-dependent co-variables (that is, forest floor climate and plant-soil properties) need to be considered as well as TSF to predict GHG emissions as wildfires become more frequent, extensive and severe.

Keywords

boreal forest wildfire disturbance greenhouse gas emissions carbon dynamics forest floor chronosequence 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Funding for this research was provided by the Natural Environment Research Council, UK. We would like to thank T. N. Walker, P. A. Henrys, and S. G. Jarvis for their guidance in statistical analyses and use of R software, and Matt Clifford for his assistance in the laboratory analyses. Special thanks to the kind staff at the Silvermuseet in Arjeplog for letting us share their space.

Funding

Funding was provided by Natural Environment Research Council (Grant No. NE/I027037/1).

Supplementary material

10021_2019_344_MOESM1_ESM.docx (338 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 338 kb)

References

  1. Allison SD, Czimczik CI, Treseder KK. 2008. Microbial activity and soil respiration under nitrogen addition in Alaskan boreal forest. Global Change Biology 14:1156–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bartoń K. 2016. MuMIn: Multi-Model Interface. R package version 1(15):6.Google Scholar
  3. Bligh EG, Dyer WJ. 1959. A rapid method of total lipid extraction and purification. Canadian Journal of Biochemistry and Physiology 37:911–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bonan GB, Shugart HH. 1989. Environmental Factors and Ecological Processes in Boreal Forests. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 20:1–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Briones MJI, McNamara NP, Poskitt J, Crow SE, Ostle NJ. 2014. Interactive biotic and abiotic regulators of soil carbon cycling: Evidence from controlled climate experiments on peatland and boreal soils. Global Change Biology 20:2971–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Carcaillet C, Bergman I, Delorme S, Hornberg G, Zackrisson O. 2007. Long-term fire frequency not linked to prehistoric occupation in northern Swedish boreal forest. Ecology 88:465–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chapin FSIII, Matson PA, Mooney HA. 2002. Princples of Terrestrial Ecosystem Ecology. New York: Springer. p 436.Google Scholar
  8. Clemmensen KE, Bahr A, Ovaskainen O, Dahlberg A, Ekblad A, Wallander H, Stenlid J, Finlay RD, Wardle DA, Lindahl BD. 2013. Roots and Associated Fungi Drive Long-Term Carbon Sequestration in Boreal Forest. Science 339:1615–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Clemmensen KE, Finlay RD, Dahlberg A, Stenlid J, Wardle DA, Lindahl BD. 2015. Carbon sequestration is related to mycorrhizal fungal community shifts during long-term succession in boreal forests. New Phytologist 205:1525–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Crossman ZM, Abraham F, Evershed RP. 2004. Stable Isotope Pulse-Chasing and Compound Specific Stable Carbon Isotope Analysis of Phospholipid Fatty Acids to Assess Methane Oxidizing Bacterial Populations in Landfill Cover Soils. Environmental Science and Technology 38:1359–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. de Groot WJ, Flannigan MD, Cantin AS. 2013. Climate change impacts on future boreal fire regimes. Forest Ecology and Management 294:35–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. de Vries FT, Manning P, Tallowin JRB, Mortimer SR, Pilgrim ES, Harrison KA, Hobbs PJ, Quirk H, Shipley B, Cornelissen JHC, Kattge J, Bardgett RD. 2012. Abiotic drivers and plant traits explain landscape-scale patterns in soil microbial communities. Ecology Letters 15:1230–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. DeLuca TH, Nilsson M-C, Zackrisson O. 2002a. Nitrogen mineralization and phenol accumulation along a fire chronosequence in northern Sweden. Oecologia 133:206–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. DeLuca TH, Zackrisson O, Nilsson M-C, Sellstedt A. 2002b. Quantifying nitrogen-fixation in feather moss carpets of boreal forests. Letters to Nature 419:917–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. DeLuca TH, Zackrisson O, Gundale MJ, Nilsson M-C. 2008. Ecosystem feedbacks and nitrogen fixation in boreal forests. Science 320:1181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. DeLuca TH, Boisvenue C. 2012. Boreal forest soil carbon: Distribution, function and modelling. Forestry 85:161–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Engelmark O. 1999. Boreal forest disturbance. In: R. L. Walker, editor. Ecosystems of disturbed ground. Volume 16 of Ecosystems of the World. Elsevier, Burlington, USA. p161–186.Google Scholar
  18. Flannigan MD, Amiro BD, Logan KA, Stocks BJ, Wotton BM. 2005. Forest Fires and Climate Change in the 21ST Century. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 11:847–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Flannigan M, Cantin AS, De Groot WJ, Wotton M, Newbery A, Gowman LM. 2013. Global wildland fire season severity in the 21st century. Forest Ecology and Management 294:54–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Girardin MP, Ali A, Carcaillet C, Mudelsee M, Drobyshev I, Hély C, Bergeron Y. 2009. Heterogeneous response of circumboreal wildfire risk to climate change since the early 1900s. Global Change Biology 15:2751–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Harden JW, Mack M, Veldhuis H, Gower ST. 2002. Fire dynamics and implications for nitrogen cycling in boreal forests. Journal of Geophysical Research 108:8223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hobbie SE, Nadelhoffer KJ, Högberg P. 2002. A synthesis: The role of nutrients as constraints on carbon balances in boreal and arctic regions. Plant and Soil 242:163–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Holden SR, Gutierrez A, Treseder KK. 2013. Changes in Soil Fungal Communities, Extracellular Enzyme Activities, and Litter Decomposition Across a Fire Chronosequence in Alaskan Boreal Forests. Ecosystems 16:34–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Jonasson S, Michelsen A, Schmidt IK, Nielsen EV. 1999. Responses in microbes and plants to changed temperature, nutrient, and light regimes in the arctic. Ecology 80:1828–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kovats, RS, Valentini R, Bouwer LM, Georgopoulou E, Jacob D, Martin E, Rounsevell M, Soussana J-F. 2014. Europe. In: Barros VR, Field CB, Dokken DJ, Mastrandrea MD, Mach KJ, Bilir TE, Chatterjee M, Ebi KL, Estrada YO, Genova RC, Girma B, Kissel ES, Levy AN, MacCracken S, Mastrandrea PR, White LL, editors. Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Part B: Regional Aspects. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge, UK and New York, USA: Cambridge University Press. p1267–1326.Google Scholar
  26. Lagerström A, Esberg C, Wardle DA, Giesler R. 2009. Soil phosphorus and microbial response to a long-term wildfire chronosequence in northern Sweden. Biogeochemistry 95:199–213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lecomte N, Simard M, Fenton N, Bergeron Y. 2006. Fire Severity and Long-term Ecosystem Biomass Dynamics in Coniferous Boreal Forests of Eastern Canada. Ecosystems 9:1215–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Lenhart K, Weber B, Elbert W, Steinkamp J, Clough T, Crutzen P, Pöschl U, Keppler F. 2015. Nitrous oxide and methane emissions from cryptogamic covers. Global Change Biology 21:3889–900.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. McNamara NP, Gregg R, Oakley S, Stott A, Rahman MT, Murrell JC, Wardle DA, Bardgett RD, Ostle NJ. 2015. Soil Methane Sink Capacity Response to a Long-Term Wildfire Chronosequence in Northern Sweden. PLoS ONE 10:e0129892.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Niklasson M, Granstrom A. 2000. Numbers and Sizes of Fires: Long-Term Spatially Explicit Fire History in a Swedish Boreal Landscape. Ecology 81:1484–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Oechel WC, Van Cleve K. 1986. The Role of Bryophytes in Nutrient Cycling in the Taiga. In: Van Cleve K, Chapin FS, Flanagan PW, Viereck LA, Dyrness CT, editors. Forest Ecosystems in the Alaskan Taiga: A Synthesis of Structure and Function. New York: Springer-Verlag New York. p121–37.Google Scholar
  32. O’Neill KP, Kasischke ES, Richter DD. 2003. Seasonal and decadal patterns of soil carbon uptake and emission along an age sequence of burned black spruce stands in interior Alaska. Journal of Geophysical Research 108:8155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Pan Y, Birdsey RA, Fang J, Houghton R, Kauppi PE, Kurz WA, Phillips OL, Shvidenko A, Lewis SL, Canadell JG, Ciais P, Jackson RB, Pacala SW, McGuire AD, Piao S, Rautiainen A, Sitch S, Hayes D. 2011. A large and persistent carbon sink in the world’s forests. Science 333:988–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Paré D, Bergeron Y, Camiré C. 1993. Changes in the Forest Floor of Canadian Southern Boreal Forest after Disturbance. Journal of Vegetation Science 4:811–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Pinheiro J, Bates D, DebRoy S, Sarkar D, R Core Team. 2015. nlme: Linear and Nonlinear Mixed Effects Models. R package version 3.1-122.Google Scholar
  36. Prescott CE, Maynard DG, Laiho R. 2000. Humus in northern forests: Friend or foe? Forest Ecology and Management 133:23–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. R Development Core Team. 2014. R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. (Available at: http://www.R-project.org/).
  38. Street LE, Subke J-A, Sommerkorn M, Sloan V, Ducrotoy H, Phoenix GK, Williams M. 2013. The role of mosses in carbon uptake and partitioning in arctic vegetation. New Phytologist 199:163–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Tjoelker MG, Oleksyn J, Reich PB, Żytkowiak R. 2008. Coupling of respiration, nitrogen, and sugars underlies convergent temperature acclimation in Pinus banksiana across wide-ranging sites and populations. Global Change Biology 14:782–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Van Cleve K, Sprague D. 2015. Respiration rates in the forest floor of birch and aspen stands in interior Alaska. Journal of Canadian Forest Research 3:17–26.Google Scholar
  41. Ward C, Pothier D, Paré D. 2014. Do boreal forests need fire disturbance to maintain productivity? Ecosystems 17:1053–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Ward SE, Ostle NJ, Oakley S, Quirk H, Henrys PA, Bardgett RD. 2013. Warming effects on greenhouse gas fluxes in peatlands are modulated by vegetation composition. Ecology Letters 16:1285–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Wardle DA. 1997. The Influence of Island Area on Ecosystem Properties. Science 277:1296–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Wardle DA, Hörnberg G, Zackrisson O, Kalela-Brundin M, Coomes DA. 2003. Long-term effects of wildfire on ecosystem properties across an island area gradient. Science 300:972–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Wardle DA, Zackrisson O. 2005. Effects of species and functional group loss on island ecosystem properties. Nature 435:806–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Wardle DA, Jonsson M, Bansal S, Bardgett RD, Gundale MJ, Metcalfe DB. 2012a. Linking vegetation change, carbon sequestration and biodiversity: Insights from island ecosystems in a long-term natural experiment. Journal of Ecology 100:16–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Wardle DA, Jonsson M, Kalela-Brundin M, Lagerström A, Bardgett RD, Yeates GW, Nilsson MC. 2012b. Drivers of inter-year variability of plant production and decomposers across contrasting island ecosystems. Ecology 93:521–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Whitaker J, Ostle N, Nottingham AT, Ccahuana A, Salinas N, Bardgett RD, Meir P, McNamara NP. 2014. Microbial community composition explains soil respiration responses to changing carbon inputs along an Andes-to-Amazon elevation gradient. Journal of Ecology 102:1058–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Williams TG, Flanagan LB. 1996. Effect of changes in water content on photosynthesis, transpiration and discrimination against 13CO2 and C18O16O in Pleurozium and Sphagnum. Oecologia 2:38–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Zackrisson O. 1977. Influence of forest fires on the North Swedish boreal forest. Oikos 29:22–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Zackrisson O. 1980. Forest fire history: ecological significance and dating problems in the north Swedish boreal forests. - In: Dietrich, JH, Stokes, M, editors. Proceedings of the fire history workshop, University of Arizona. USDA, Rocky Mountain Forest and Experiment Station. General Technical Report RM81, p120–125.Google Scholar
  52. Zackrisson O, Nilsson M, Wardle DA. 1996. Ecological Function of Charcoal from Wildfire in the Boreal Forest. Oikos 77:10–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Zackrisson O, DeLuca TH, Nilsson MC, Sellstedt A, Berglund LM. 2004. Nitrogen fixation increases with successional age in boreal forests. Ecology 85:3327–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Zackrisson O, DeLuca TH, Gentili F, Sellstedt A, Jäderlund A. 2009. Nitrogen fixation in mixed Hylocomium splendens moss communities. Oecologia 160:309–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Zuur AE, Ieno EN, Walker NJ, Saveliev AA, Smith GM. 2009. Mixed Effects Models and Extensions in Ecology with R. New York: Springer. p 574.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kelly E. Mason
    • 1
    Email author
  • Simon Oakley
    • 1
  • Lorna E. Street
    • 2
  • María Arróniz-Crespo
    • 3
    • 4
  • David L. Jones
    • 4
  • Thomas H. DeLuca
    • 5
  • Nicholas J. Ostle
    • 6
  1. 1.Centre for Ecology & Hydrology, Lancaster Environment CentreBailriggUK
  2. 2.School of GeoSciencesUniversity of EdinburghEdinburghUK
  3. 3.Departamento de Química y Tecnología de AlimentosUniversidad Politécnica de MadridMadridSpain
  4. 4.School of Environment, Natural Resources and GeographyBangor UniversityBangorUK
  5. 5.WA Frank College of Forestry and ConservationUniversity of MontanaMissoulaUSA
  6. 6.Lancaster Environment CentreLancaster UniversityLancasterUK

Personalised recommendations