Survival of the cleanest? Evidence from a plant-level analysis of pollutant emissions in Canadian pulp and paper industry, 2005–2013

  • Jean-Thomas BernardEmail author
  • Jakir Hussain
  • Mishaal Masud Sinha
Research Article


We capitalize on access to plant-level data in examining the changes in emissions of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), total suspended solids (TSS), and greenhouse gas (GHG) for a set of Canadian pulp and paper mills from 2005 to 2013. In particular, we investigate the roles played by changes in output, emission intensity, allocation of production among surviving plants, and plant closures. Output change is the main factor and improvement of emission intensity by surviving plants—the so-called technique effect—brings a small, yet positive contribution. However, there are no indications that market operations determining plant output and plant survival lead to lower emissions.


Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) Total suspended solids (TSS) Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions Technique effect Pulp and paper industry 

JEL classification




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Copyright information

© Society for Environmental Economics and Policy Studies and Springer Japan KK, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jean-Thomas Bernard
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jakir Hussain
    • 1
    • 2
  • Mishaal Masud Sinha
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of EconomicsUniversity of OttawaOttawaCanada
  2. 2.Department of Finance CanadaGovernment of CanadaOttawaCanada

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