Applying the voltammetry of microparticles to assess the metal ion excess following a precipitation reaction: the determination of arsenic

  • Javier Espinoza-Vergara
  • Jorge Pavez
  • Evelyn Gonzalez
  • Cristián Ramirez
  • Maritza Páez
  • Miguel GulppiEmail author
Original Paper


Here we demonstrate that the metal ion excess after precipitating a sparingly soluble metal salt can be conveniently determined by a secondary precipitation of a metal salt on an electrode surface, followed by measuring the solid-state electrochemical response of that salt. As an example, the analysis of the arsenic content of solutions is presented.



The authors are especially grateful to the company ECOMETALES Ltd. (subsidiary of Codelco Chile) for providing a sample of the effluent solution (EPAS) of the Arsenic Treatment Plant of the Copper Smelter.

Funding information

M. Gulppi thanks Conicyt (Fondecyt project No. 1160167) and DICYT-USACH (Grant 051742PC-DAS).


  1. 1.
    Skoog DA, West DM, Holler FJ, Crouch SR (2013) Fundamentals of analytical chemistry, 9th edn. Brooks/Cole, BelmontGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Scholz F, Kahlert H (2019) Chemical equilibria in analytical chemistry. Springer Nature, ChamCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Scholz F, Nitschke L, Henrion G (1989) A new procedure for fast electrochemical analysis of solid materials. Naturw 76(2):71–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Scholz F, Schröder U, Gulaboski R, Doménech-Carbó A (2015) Electrochemistry of immobilized particles and droplets, 2nd edn. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Doménech Carbó A, Labuda J, Scholz F (2013) Electroanalytical chemistry for the analysis of solids: characterization and classification (IUPAC technical report). Pure Appl Chem 85:609–631CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gulppi MA, Vejar N, Tamayo L, Azocar MI, Vera C, Silva C, Zagal JH, Scholz F, Páez MA (2014) Stripping voltammetry microprobe (SPV): a new approach in electroanalysis. Electrochem Commun 41:8–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Gulppi M, Pavez J, Zagal JH, Sancy M, Azocar M, Scholz F, Páez MA (2015) Stripping voltammetry microprobe (SPV): substantial improvements of the protocol. J Electroanal Chem 745:61–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hasse U, Wagner K, Scholz F (2004) Nucleation at three-phase junction lines: In situ atomic force microscopy of the electrochemical reduction of sub micrometer size silver and mercury(I) halide crystals immobilized on gold electrodes. J Solid State Electrochem 8:842–853CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Grundl T, Delwiche J (1993) Kinetics of ferric oxyhydroxide precipitation. J Contam Hydrol 14(1):71–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Departamento de Química de los Materiales, Facultad de Química y BiologíaUniversidad de Santiago de ChileSantiagoChile
  2. 2.Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Instituto de Investigación Interdisciplinar en Ciencias Biomédicas SEK (I3CBSEK)Universidad SEK ChileSantiagoChile

Personalised recommendations