Na0.11WO3 nanoflake arrays grown on Ni foam for high-performance supercapacitor
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Via a facile one-pot hydrothermal method, nanoflake arrays constructed by Na0.11WO3 and amorphous NiO or Ni (OH)2 were successfully grown on Ni foam (NF) in the presence of urea. The correlation between synthetic condition, composition, morphology and electrochemical behavior of the obtained compounds has been investigated. The optimum sample, Na0.11WO3/NF-15 (urea/Co molar ratio = 15) shows a large volumetric capacity of 14.86 and 6.00 C cm−3 at 0.5 and 10 mA cm−2 (3.33 and 66.67 mA cm−3), respectively, which is related with the three-dimensional (3D) W-O-W host framework of Na0.11WO3 with good electron conductivity, providing open tunnel for alkali ions to be intercalated/deintercalated. On the other hand, it is associated with the heterostructure of Na0.11WO3 and NiO or Ni (OH)2, giving to synergistic effect. Furthermore, it is ascribed to the 3D porous nanoflake arrays vertically grown on Ni foam. As a result, active sites can be exposed to electrolyte ions effectively. Meanwhile, Na0.11WO3/NF-15//activated carbon asymmetric supercapacitor can deliver a maximum energy density of 2.13 mWh cm−3 at the power density of 2.40 mW cm−3 with 87.5% of capacity retention after 10,000 charging-discharging cycles at 50 mA cm−2 (333.33 mA cm−3).
KeywordsNa0.11WO3 Ni foam Nanoflake Supercapacitor
The study received financial supports from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 21371184 and 21771028), National-Municipal Joint Engineering Laboratory for Chemical Process Intensification and Reaction, and Chongqing Key Laboratory of Chemical Process for Clean Energy and Resource Utilization.
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