Background, fundamental understanding and progress in electrochemical capacitors

  • Yogesh KumarEmail author
  • Sangeeta Rawal
  • Bhawana Joshi
  • S. A. Hashmi


Supercapacitors means electrochemical capacitors are being considered these days to be a good alternative for the conventional power sources (fuel cells and batteries) in many applications because of their high power density, long cycle life and less charging and discharging time. This review article presents an overview of different types of supercapacitors (electrical double-layer capacitors (EDLCs), pseudocapacitors and hybrid supercapacitors. The device configurations (symmetric, asymmetric and hybrid), the mechanism of charge storing at the surface (ion adsorption for EDLCs and fast surface redox reactions for pseudocapacitors) and the effect of electrode material (activated carbon, carbon aerogels, carbon fabrics, carbide-derived carbons, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), graphene, biomass, etc. for EDLCs and conducting polymers and insertion type compounds for pseudocapacitors) and electrolytes are crucial. Electrolytes used in the supercapacitors also play important role to determine its operating voltage range, energy density, power density, etc. Both the classes of electrolytes, liquid electrolytes (aqueous, organic, ionic liquids) and solid electrolytes (polymer-based electrolytes) are also discussed in the last section of this review. The voltage range, energy density and power density ultimately define their use for different applications namely heavy electric vehicles and portable electronic devices.


Electrical double-layer capacitors Bio-resource derived carbon Graphene Electrolytes Metal oxides Lithium ion capacitor 


Funding information

The authors acknowledge the financial support received from the Science and Engineering Research Board (SERB), Department of Science and Technology, Government of India (sanction no. ECR/2016/001871) under the scheme Early Career Research Award.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yogesh Kumar
    • 1
    Email author
  • Sangeeta Rawal
    • 2
  • Bhawana Joshi
    • 2
  • S. A. Hashmi
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of PhysicsARSD College University of DelhiNew DelhiIndia
  2. 2.Department of Applied PhysicsGautam Buddha UniversityGreater NoidaIndia
  3. 3.Department of Physics & AstrophysicsUniversity of DelhiNew DelhiIndia

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