Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry

, Volume 23, Issue 2, pp 351–360 | Cite as

Application of TiO2-nanotubes/PbO2 as an anode for the electrochemical elimination of Acid Red 1 dye

  • José Eudes L. Santos
  • Dayanne Chianca de Moura
  • Djalma Ribeiro da Silva
  • Marco Panizza
  • Carlos A. Martínez-HuitleEmail author
Original Paper


In this study, galvanostatic electrolysis, through the use of the platinum supported on Ti (Ti/Pt) and Ti/TiO2-nanotubes/PbO2 anodes, was conducted in an electrochemical cell with 0.2 L of solution containing 100 mg dm−3 of the textile dye Acid Red 1 (AR1) using Na2SO4 as supporting electrolyte, applying 7.5 and 60 mA cm−2. From the voltammetric curves, it was possible to understand that Ti/TiO2-nanotubes/PbO2 electrode has high oxygen evolution overpotential than Ti/Pt anode. A direct electron transfer reaction is attained between the dye molecules and Ti/Pt surface, at lower currents. Conversely, the AR1 oxidation involves water decomposition intermediates, mainly ·OH radicals at Ti/TiO2-nanotubes/PbO2 anode. The electrolytic process was monitored by the UV–visible spectrometry and the chemical oxygen demand (COD). Results clearly show that Ti/TiO2-nanotubes/PbO2 anode performs better than Ti/TiO2 in removing ARI due to the electrosynthesis of strong oxidants on its surface (·OH and persulfates), achieving a higher oxidation rate, higher current efficiency, and less energy consumption than Ti/Pt electrode.


Titanium oxide nanotubes PbO2 Anodic oxidation Dye Water treatment, strong oxidants 


Funding information

The authors thank the financial support provided by National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq - 446846/2014-7 and CNPq- 401519/2014-7, Brazil) and they also thank Industrie De Nora S.p.A. (Milan, Italy) for providing the Ti/Pt electrode.

Supplementary material

10008_2018_4134_MOESM1_ESM.doc (46 kb)
ESM 1 (DOC 45 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of ChemistryFederal University of Rio Grande do NorteNatalBrazil
  2. 2.Department of Civil, Chemical and Environmental EngineeringUniversity of GenoaGenoaItaly

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