Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry

, Volume 23, Issue 1, pp 143–157 | Cite as

Sensitive voltammetric determination of bromate by using ion-exchange property of a Sn(II)-clinoptilolite-modified carbon paste electrode

  • Tahmineh Tamiji
  • Alireza Nezamzadeh-EjhiehEmail author
Original Paper


A modified carbon paste electrode with Sn(II)-exchanged clinoptilolite nanoparticles (CNP-Sn(II)-CPE) showed voltammetric current (in cyclic voltammetry (CV)) for Sn(II)/Sn(IV) in sulfuric acid electrolyte (pH 2). The peak current was decreased when bromate was added to the solution. Hence, this decrease was used for indirect voltammetric determination of bromate. In designed experiments using response surface methodology (RSM) approach in square-wave voltammetry (SqW), strong acidic pH values (pH 1.8–2.5) caused an increased SqW voltammetric response, because such pH values bring sufficient Sn(II) as the electroactive species at the electrode surface via ion-exchange process. The optimal variables obtained are sulfuric acid as supporting electrolyte at pH 1.80, modifier% at 25, amplitude at 498.4 mV, step potential at 5.4 mV, and frequency at 25 Hz. The peak current of Sn(II)/Sn(IV) redox pair was inversely proportionate to the concentration of bromate. Hence, ΔI (difference in peak current in the absence and presence of bromate) was proportionally increased with increasing the concentration of bromate in the range of 5.00 to 100.00 μmol L−1 with a detection limit of 0.06 μmol L−1 bromate. The effect of some strong oxidizing agents was studied, and the results showed that when such agents are present at levels of 2.5 to 5 times greater than the bromate in the solution, they can cause a maximum error of 3% in the determination of bromate in sulfuric acid electrolyte at pH 2.5.


Response surface area (RSM) Zeolite-modified electrodes Clinoptilolite Nanoparticles Bromate 

Supplementary material

10008_2018_4119_MOESM1_ESM.docx (950 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 950 kb) The electronic supplementary materials are referred to individually in the main text, but were submitted all collated in a single file. If specific, individual reference to these is required, then please supply each as a separate file, ensuring that the naming conventions used are consistent (e.g., Online Resource #, Supplementary File #, Additional File #).Please use the seprate file that has been attached in revision version, as : Supplementary data


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemistry, Shahreza BranchIslamic Azad UniversityShahrezaIslamic Republic of Iran
  2. 2.Young Researchers and Elite Club, Shahreza BranchIslamic Azad UniversityShahrezaIslamic Republic of Iran

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