Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry

, Volume 22, Issue 11, pp 3515–3525 | Cite as

Electrochemical sensor using graphene/Fe3O4 nanosheets functionalized with garlic extract for the detection of lead ion

  • Bin He
  • Xian-feng Shen
  • Jing Nie
  • Xiao-li Wang
  • Fang-mei Liu
  • Wei YinEmail author
  • Chang-jun Hou
  • Dan-qun Huo
  • Huan-bao FaEmail author


Based on the modulated electronic properties of Fe3O4-graphene (Fe3O4/GN composite) as well as the outstanding complexation between Pb2+ and natural substances garlic extract (GE), a novel electrochemical sensor for the determination of Pb2+ in wastewater was prepared by immobilization of Fe3O4/GN composite integrated with GE onto the surface of glassy carbon electrode (GCE). Fe3O4/GN composite was employed as an electrochemical active probe for enhancing electrical response by facilitating charge transfer while GE was used to improve the selectivity and sensitivity of the proposed sensor to Pb2+ assay. The electrochemical sensing performance toward Pb2+ was appraised by cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and square wave voltammetry (SWV). Under the optimized condition, the sensor exhibited two dynamic linear ranges (LDR) including 0.001 to 0.5 nM and 0.5 to 1000 nM with excellent low detection limit (LOD) of 0.0123 pM (S/N = 3) and quantification limit (LOQ) of 0.41 pM (S/N = 10). Meanwhile, it displayed remarkable stability, reproducibility (RSD of 3.61%, n = 3), and selectivity toward the assay for the 100-fold higher concentration of other heavy metal ions. Furthermore, the novel sensor has been successfully employed to detect Pb2+ from real water samples with satisfactory results.


Garlic extract Lead(II) Fe3O4/GN Electrochemical sensor 



This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 31101284), the Graduate Research and Innovation Foundation of Chongqing, China (No. CYS17017), Chongqing Science and Technology Commission (No. CSTC2015shmszxl20097 and CSTC2017shmsA100010), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (No. 2018CDXYHG0028), and the Chongqing University Student Research Training Program (No. CQU-SRTP-2016330 and CQU-SRTP-2016337).

Supplementary material

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ESM 1 (DOCX 93 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.National-Municipal Joint Engineering Laboratory for Chemical Process Intensification and Reaction, College of Chemistry and Chemical EngineeringChongqing UniversityChongqingPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.FuJian Key Laboratory for Green Production of Copper and Comprehensive Utilization of Associated ResourcesZijin Copper Co., LtdLongyan CityPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.Key Laboratory of Biorheology Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of BioengineeringChongqing UniversityChongqingPeople’s Republic of China

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