Solid and acid electrolytes for Al-air batteries based on xanthan-HCl hydrogels
- 187 Downloads
This paper presents first investigations on solid and strongly acid electrolytes for Al-air batteries. These electrolytes are prepared starting from a “green” polysaccharide (xanthan gum) and HCl solutions (between 4 and 24 wt%). The gelling capability of xanthan is used to obtain real solid products characterized by ionic conductivities of practical interest (10−2 S cm−1) in electrochemical cells. The adsorption properties of xanthan on metal Al are exploited to control anode self-corrosion and realize Al-air cells with very high anodic efficiencies (> 80%). The behavior of Al-air cells is studied utilizing the weight loss technique, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, potentiodynamic polarization curves, scanning electron microscopy coupled to energy-dispersive spectroscopy, and discharge tests at constant current (1–5 mA) with Pt/C-based air cathodes. The best overall performance is observed with electrolytes prepared starting from HCl at 24% and gel solid/liquid ratio of 1.40 g ml−1. The hydrogels obtained in this work permit for the first time the operation of an Al-air galvanic cell based on solid and strongly acid electrolytes with high anodic efficiency and limited dendrite formation.
KeywordsAl-air batteries Al corrosion Xanthan Acid hydrogels Gel polymer electrolytes
The authors gratefully acknowledge Dr. G. Perretta (Istituto Motori) for the support in SEM-EDS measurements.
The authors gratefully acknowledge the Italian Ministry of University and Research for financial support in “Fuel Cell Lab - Innovative systems and high efficiency technologies for poly-generation” Project, PON03PE_00109_1.
- 16.Li L, Manthiram A (2015) Long-life, high-voltage acidic Zn–air batteries. Adv Energy Mater 6(1502054):1–7Google Scholar
- 17.Fan L, Wei S, Li S, Li Q, Lu Y (2018) Recent progress of the solid-state electrolytes for high-energy metal-based batteries. Adv Energy Mater 8(1702657):1–31Google Scholar
- 29.Yoshida H, Takei F, Sawatari N (2002) High ionic conducting polymer with polysaccharide and its applications. FUJITSU Scientific & Technical Journal 38:39–45Google Scholar
- 32.Morris VJ (2006) In: Stephen AM, Phillips GO, Williams PA (eds) Food polysaccharides and their applications. Taylor & Francis, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- 35.Arukalam IO, Alaohuru CO, Ugbo CO, Jideofor KN, Ehirim PN, Madufor IC (2014) Effect of Xanthan gum on the Corrosion Protection of Aluminium in HCl medium. Int J Adv Res Tech 3:5–16Google Scholar
- 36.Arukalam IO, Ijomah NT, Nwanonenyi SC, Obasi HC, Aharanwa BC, Anyanwu PI (2014) Studies on acid corrosion of aluminium by a naturally occurring polymer (Xanthan gum). Int J Sci Eng Res 5:663–673Google Scholar