Advertisement

Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry

, Volume 22, Issue 9, pp 2863–2877 | Cite as

An optimization and fast load-oriented control for current-based solid oxide fuel cell system

  • Lin Zhang
  • Shaoying Shi
  • Jianhua Jiang
  • Feng Wang
  • Hongtu Xie
  • Hong Chen
  • Xiaowei Fu
  • Xi Li
Original Paper
  • 66 Downloads

Abstract

One of the key problems for a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), which is a high-temperature power-generation plant, is the cooperative control of safe operation and system efficiency during load tracking. Within the constraints of thermal safety, the SOFC plant should have the maximum output efficiency under various static conditions. Moreover, the SOFC system can switch between different static working conditions smoothly, safely, and quickly when the external load power changes. To achieve cooperative thermoelectric control, taking a 5-kW stand-alone SOFC system as the research object, according to the optimal static strategy designed based on the optimal operating curves (OOCs), a sliding mode controller (SMC) is designed and the closed-loop responses are discussed for SOFC system power switching during load tracking. The identification results demonstrate that the electrical coupling dynamic model can depict and predict accurately the electrical characteristics of SOFC stacks. And based on the obtained OOCs, the thermoelectric control can be achieved and thermal safety ensured using the designed SMC.

Keywords

Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) Safe operation Maximum output efficiency Optimal operating curves (OOCs) Sliding mode controller (SMC) 

Nomenclature

AR

air excess ratio [−]

BP

bypass valve opening ratio [−]

C

specific heat capacity [kJ kmol−1 K−1]

E0

standard electrode potential (V)

FU

fuel utilization [−]

F

Faraday’s constant [96,485 C mol−1]

h

convective heat transfer coefficient [kW cm−2 K−1]

I

current [A]

LHV

low heat value [kJ]

Max. |ΔTPEN|

maximum PEN temperature gradient [K cm−1]

Max. TPEN

maximum PEN temperature [K]

N

control volume mole number [kmol]

\( \dot{N} \)

molar flow rate [kmol s−1]

N0

number of fuel cells [−]

p

pressure [bar]

k

thermal conductivity [kW cm−1 K−1]

P

power [kW]

\( \dot{Q} \)

heat transfer [kW]

R

universal gas constant [8.314 kJ kmol−1 K−1]

A

surface area [cm2]

T

temperature [K]

U

voltage [V]

\( \dot{W} \)

work [W]

X

species mole fraction

L

distance between control volume [cm]

CD

current density [A cm−2]

i0

exchange current [A cm−2]

Snode

area of each node [cm2]

LSM

lanthanum strontium manganate

j

the index of discretization units of the cell

J

the user-defined number of cell nodes

Greek letter

τ

effectiveness

γ

specific heat ratio, 1.4

δ

number of electrons participating in the electro-chemical reaction

α

charge transfer coefficient, 0.5

ε

specified tolerance constant, 1e−5

η

efficiency [%]

Subscript

amb

ambient

act

activation

B

burner

bl

blower

by

bypass

con

concentration

dl

diagonal line

i

species

in

inlet

out

outlet

net

system net output power

s

stack

v

volume

so

solid control volume

ga

gas control volume

ca

cathode

an

anode

PEN

positive electrode-electrolyte-negative electrode

Notes

Funding information

The work was supported by the open fund project of Hubei Province Key Laboratory of Intelligent Information Processing and Real-time Industrial System (No. znxx2018ZD02), the basic research project of Shenzhen (JCYJ20170307160923202), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (61573162).

References

  1. 1.
    Minh NQ, Takahashi T (1995) Sci Technol of Ceramic Fuel Cell Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Vielstich W, Yokokawa H, Gasteiger HA (2009) Handbook of fuel cells: fundamentals technology and applications. John Wiley &SonsGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Qi Y, Huang B, Luo J (2006) Dynamic modeling of a finite volume of solid oxide fuel cell: the effect of transport dynamics. Chem Eng Sci 61(18):6057–6076CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Rees NV, Compton RG (2011) Sustainable energy: a review of formic acid electrochemical fuel cells. J Solid State Electrochem 15(10):2095–2100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Dillig M, Plankenbühler T, Karl J (2018) Thermal effects of planar high temperature heat pipes in solid oxide cell stacks operated with internal methane reforming. J Power Sources 373:139–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Zhang T, Feng G (2009) Rapid load following of an SOFC power system via stable fuzzy predictive tracking controller. IEEE Trans Fuzzy Syst 17(2):357–371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hames Y, Kaya K, Baltacioglu E, Turksoy A (2018) Analysis of the control strategies for fuel saving in the hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. Int J Hydrog Energy Doi:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2017.12.150
  8. 8.
    Stiller C, Thorud B, Bolland O, Kandepu R, Imsland L (2006) Control strategy for a solid oxide fuel cell and gas turbine hybrid system. J Power Sources 158(1):303–315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Jia Z, Sun J, Oh SR, Dobbs H, King J (2013) Control of the dual mode operation of generator/motor in SOFC/GT-based APU for extended dynamic capabilities. J Power Sources 235:172–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    M. F (2008) The dynamics and control of integrated solid oxide fuel cell systems: transient load-following and fuel disturbance rejection. Ph.D Thesis, University of California, IrvineGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Wang YZ, Yu J, Weng S (2011) Numerical investigation of different loads effect on the performance of planar electrode supported SOFC with syngas as fuel. Int J Hydrog Energy 36(9):5624–5631CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Barelli L, Bidini G, Gallorini F, Ottaviano PA (2013) Design optimization of a SOFC-based CHP system through dynamic analysis. Int J Hydrog Energy 38(1):354–369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Xi HD (2007) Dynamic modeling and control of planar SOFC power system. Ph.D Thesis, University of Michigan, Ann ArborGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Padulles J, Ault GW, McDonald JR (2000) An integrated SOFC plant dynamic model for power systems simulation. J Power Sources 86(1-2):495–500CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Xie Y, Xue X (2009) Transient modeling of anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells. Int J Hydrog Energy 34(16):6882–6891CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kazempoor P, Dorer V, Ommi F (2009) Evaluation of hydrogen and methane-fuelled solid oxide fuel cell systems for residential applications: system design alternative and parameter study. Int J Hydrog Energy 34(20):8630–8644CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Cao H, Li X, Deng Z, Li J, Qin Y (2013) Thermal management oriented steady state analysis and optimization of a kW scale solid oxide fuel cell stand-alone system for maximum system efficiency. Int J Hydrog Energy 38(28):12404–12417CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Wu X, Ye Q, Wang J (2017) A hybrid prognostic model applied to SOFC prognostics. Int J Hydrog Energy 42(39):25008–25020CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Murshed AM, Huang B, Nandakumar K (2007) Control relevant modeling of planer solid oxide fuel cell system. J Power Sources 163(2):830–845CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Mueller F, Brouwer J, Jabbari F, Samuelsen S (2006) Dynamic simulation of an integrated solid oxide fuel cell system including current-based fuel flow control. J Fuel Cell Sci Technol 3(2):144–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Komatsu Y, Brus G, Kimijima S, Szmyd J (2014) The effect of overpotentials on the transient response of the 300W SOFC cell stack voltage. Appl Energy 115:352–359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Zhang L, Li X, Jiang JH, Li SH, Yang J, Li J (2015) Dynamic modeling and analysis of a 5-kW solid oxide fuel cell system from the perspectives of cooperative control of thermal safety and high efficiency. Int J Hydrog Energy 40(1):456–476CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Zhang L, Jiang J, Cheng H, Deng ZH, Li X (2015) Control strategy for power management, efficiency-optimization and operating-safety of a 5-kW solid oxide fuel cell system. Electrochim Acta 177:237–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Bao C, Wang Y, Feng D, Jiang Z, Zhang X (2018) Macroscopic modeling of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and model-based control of SOFC and gas turbine hybrid system. Prog Energy Combust Sci 66:83–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ramadhani F, Hussain MA, Mokhlis H, Hajimolana S (2017) Optimization strategies for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) application: a literature survey. Renew Sust Energ Rev 76:460–484CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Papurello D, Iafrate C, Lanzini A, Santarelli M (2017) Trace compounds impact on SOFC performance: experimental and modelling approach. Appl Energy 208:637–654CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Wang Y, Gu L, Gao M, Zhu K (2016) Multivariable output feedback adaptive terminal sliding mode control for underwater vehicles. Asian J Control 18(1):247–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Utkin V, Guldner J, Shi J, Ge S, Lewis F (2009) Sliding mode control in electro-mechanical systems, Second Edition. Boca Raton: CRC PressGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Air Force Early Warning AcademyWuhanChina
  2. 2.School of Automation, Key Laboratory of Education Ministry for Image Processing and Intelligent ControlHuazhong University of Science and TechnologyWuhanChina
  3. 3.Research institute of Huazhong University of Science and TechnologyShenzhenChina
  4. 4.College of Computer Science and Technology, Hubei Province Key Laboratory of Intelligent Information Processing and Real-time Industrial SystemWuhan University of Science and TechnologyWuhanChina

Personalised recommendations