Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry

, Volume 23, Issue 4, pp 1129–1144 | Cite as

Biosensor for the oxidative stress biomarker glutathione based on SAM of cobalt phthalocyanine on a thioctic acid modified gold electrode

  • Mohammed Nooredeen AbbasEmail author
  • Ayman Ali Saeed
  • Mounir Ben Ali
  • Abdelhamid Errachid
  • Nadia Zine
  • Abdullatif Baraket
  • Baljit Singh
Original Paper


Self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of cobalt teraaminophthalocyanine (CoTAPc) was developed on thioctic acid (TA) dithiol modified gold electrode and electrochemically evaluated as a glutathione (GSH) selective biosensor. The CoTAPc-TA-Au modified electrode was developed by the covalent immobilization of the CoTAPc as the electrochemical mediator onto previously prepared gold electrode modified with TA (TA-Au) via amid bond formation with the carboxylic group of TA, producing well-organized SAM of the mediator. For comparison, another electrode modified with 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) as a monothiol linker instead of TA was similarly prepared. The electrode surface modification was characterized using SEM, AFM, CV, and EIS. The contact angle measurements of the surface confirmed the formation of CoTAPc SAM on both TA and MPA modified electrodes. The CoTAPc-TA-Au modified electrode showed enhanced catalytic activity for GSH oxidation compared to that of CoTAPc-MPA-Au, indicating that the TA dithiol allowed for more coverage of the catalyst layer on the electrode surface with stronger binding. The experimental parameters controlling the voltammetric processes like scan rate and pH of sample solution were optimized. Using DPV technique, the proposed sensor exhibited a linear response of oxidation peak current vs. GSH concentration, over the concentration range between 10 and 100 μmol L−1 with a LOD of 1.5 μmol L−1 for the CoTAPc-TA-Au modified electrode compared to 5.5 μmol L−1 GSH, for the CoTAPc-MPA-Au electrode. The proposed sensor was utilized for detection of glutathione in some hemolyzed blood samples.

Graphical abstract


Glutathione Biosensor SAM Thioctic acid Cobalt phthalocyanine 



The authors thank the EU for supporting this work through FP7 Marie Curie IRSES Project: Micro/nano sensors for early cancer warning system–diagnostic and prognostic information “SMARTCANCERSENS.”

Supplementary material

10008_2018_4191_MOESM1_ESM.docx (82 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 82 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Electroanal. Lab., Applied Organic Chemistry DepartmentNational Research Centre (NRC)GizaEgypt
  2. 2.Université de Sousse, ISSAT de SousseIbn Khaldoun SousseTunisia
  3. 3.Institut des Sciences Analytiques (ISA), Université de Lyon, Université de Claude Bernard Lyon 1, UMR 5280VilleurbanneFrance
  4. 4.MiCRA Biodiagnostics Technology GatewayInstitute of Technology TallaghtDublin 24Ireland

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