Aesthetic facial perception and need for treatment in simulated laterognathism in male faces of different ethnicities

  • Priscilla Bispo de Carvalho Barbosa
  • Walbert de Andrade Vieira
  • Ítalo de Macedo Bernardino
  • Marcio Magno Costa
  • Matheus Melo Pithon
  • Luiz Renato ParanhosEmail author
Original Article



This study aimed to compare the aesthetic perception and treatment need in individuals of different ethnicities with various degrees of laterognathism assessed by orthodontists, oral and maxillofacial surgeons, and laypersons.


Three male descendants of different ethnicities were assessed, in which the mandibular deviation was manipulated digitally in different angulations (from 0 to 8°). The assessment was performed by three groups (orthodontists, maxillofacial surgeons, and laypersons (n = 20)), and it consisted of scoring the degree of pleasantness of the images presented in a numerical scale and indicating or not a corrective treatment for the respective image.


The higher the degree of deviation, the lower the scores assigned to the image (p < 0.05). Laypersons assigned the highest scores, with a significant difference between laypersons and oral and maxillofacial surgeons (p < 0.05). In terms of treatment need according to the group of evaluators, there were no statistically significant differences among them (p > 0.05). Moreover, the increase in degree of deviation increased the perception of treatment need (p < 0.05). The African faces received the highest scores, with significant differences from the Caucasian faces (p < 0.05). The overall tendency was higher treatment indication for the Caucasian faces, with statistically significant differences from the African faces (p < 0.05).


The greater the mandibular deviation, the lower the aesthetic pleasantness. Laypersons are less critical regarding the assessment of mandibular deviation. There was no difference for treatment indication by the different groups of evaluators. In addition, ethnicity may influence the perception and treatment indication.


Esthetics Facial asymmetry Mandible Perception 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study. Additional informed consent was obtained from all individual participants for whom identifying information is included in this article.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Priscilla Bispo de Carvalho Barbosa
    • 1
  • Walbert de Andrade Vieira
    • 2
  • Ítalo de Macedo Bernardino
    • 3
  • Marcio Magno Costa
    • 4
  • Matheus Melo Pithon
    • 5
  • Luiz Renato Paranhos
    • 6
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of DentistryFederal University of SergipeAracajuBrazil
  2. 2.Department of Restorative Dentistry, Endodontics Division, Piracicaba Dental SchoolState University of Campinas, UNICAMPPiracicabaBrazil
  3. 3.Department of DentistryState University of ParaíbaCampina GrandeBrazil
  4. 4.School of Dentistry, Area of Removable Prosthesis and Dental MaterialsFederal University of UberlandiaUberlândiaBrazil
  5. 5.Postgraduate Program in Pediatric Dentistry and OrthodonticsFederal University of Rio de JaneiroRio de JaneiroBrazil
  6. 6.School of Dentistry, Area of Preventive and Social DentistryFederal University of Uberlandia, Campus UmuaramaUberlândiaBrazil

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