Guaiacol/β-cyclodextrin for rapid healing of dry socket: antibacterial activity, cytotoxicity, and bone repair—an animal study
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Dry socket (DS) is one the most common and symptomatic post-extraction complications; however, no consensus on its treatment has been reached. This study aimed to develop a novel dressing material for DS containing the phenolic agent guaiacol and evaluate its biological properties.
An inclusion complex of guaiacol and β-cyclodextrin (Gu/βcd) was prepared by freeze-drying. Its antibacterial activity over six oral bacteria was analyzed using the microdilution method, and its cytotoxicity in osteoblasts was assessed with the MTT assay. The alveolar healing process induced by Gu/βcd was evaluated histologically after the treatment of DS in rats.
βcd complexation potentiated Gu’s antibacterial effect and reduced its cytotoxicity in osteoblasts. Bone trabeculae were formed in the alveolar apices of rats treated with Gu/βcd by day 7. On day 14, woven bone occupied the apical and middle thirds of the sockets; on day 21, the entire alveolus was filled by newly formed bone, which was in a more advanced stage of repair than the positive control (Alvogyl™).
The improvement in Gu’s biological properties in vitro and the rapid alveolar repair in comparison with Alvogyl™ in vivo demonstrated the benefits of the Gu/βcd complex as a future alternative for the treatment of DS.
KeywordsAntibacterial agent Cytotoxicity Dry socket Guaiacol Oral surgery Animal study
We acknowledge the National Institute of Science and Technology in Nanobiopharmaceutical, Foundation for Supporting Research in the State of Minas Gerais (FAPEMIG), National Counsel of Technological and Scientific Development (CNPq), and Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES).
This work was supported by the Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES, Brazil) in the form of a postgraduate scholarship.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving animals were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institution at which the studies were conducted.
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