Hyperconjugation enhances electrophilic addition to monocyclic monoterpenes: a Fukui function perspective

  • Jorge A. Amador-Balderas
  • Ramsés E. RamírezEmail author
  • Francisco MéndezEmail author
  • Francisco J. Meléndez
  • Arlette Richaud
Original Paper
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. International Conference on Systems and Processes in Physics, Chemistry and Biology (ICSPPCB-2018) in honor of Professor Pratim K. Chattaraj on his sixtieth birthday


The local and condensed Fukui functions as well as the principle of hard and soft acids and bases were used to study the addition of free radicals to the exocyclic and endocyclic double bonds of seven monocyclic monoterpenes of formula C10H16. The results obtained showed that, in general, the most reactive double bond was the one with the most substituents on the double-bonded carbon atoms, and that the reaction of a double bond with an electrophile is a soft–soft interaction. The effects of substituents on the double-bonded carbon atoms and the stabilization of the monoterpenes were interpreted by invoking hyperconjugated structures, which led us to propose a simple rule: the larger the value of the Fukui function for the double bond, the greater the hyperconjugative stabilization and the susceptibility of the double bond to electrophilic attack. In general, our results are in good accordance with relevant experimental and theoretical results published in the literature.

Graphical abstract

The specific electrophilic addition to monocyclic monoterpenes.


Monoterpene Fukui function Inductive character Endocyclic and exocyclic double bonds Methyl and isopropyl groups Hyperconjugative structures Hyperconjugative stabilization 



This work was partially supported by the project VIEP-BUAP RAGR-NAT17-I, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Cuerpo Académico BUAP-CA-263 “Investigación experimental y teórica de nuevos materiales y educación en ciencias,” as well as the Laboratorio Nacional de Supercómputo del Sureste de México (LNS).

Supplementary material

894_2018_3825_MOESM1_ESM.docx (757 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 756 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jorge A. Amador-Balderas
    • 1
  • Ramsés E. Ramírez
    • 1
    Email author
  • Francisco Méndez
    • 2
    Email author
  • Francisco J. Meléndez
    • 3
  • Arlette Richaud
    • 2
  1. 1.Departamento de FisicomatemáticasBenemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla-Facultad de Ciencias QuímicasPueblaMéxico
  2. 2.Departamento de Química, División de Ciencias Básicas e IngenieríaUniversidad Autónoma Metropolitana-IztapalapaMéxicoMéxico
  3. 3.Departamento de FisicoquímicaBenemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla-Facultad de Ciencias QuímicasPueblaMéxico

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