Boron–nitrogen dative bond

  • Carina F. Pupim
  • Anderson J. L. Catão
  • Alejandro López-CastilloEmail author
Original Paper


This study consists of the theoretical analysis of some organic molecules and their inorganic similar compounds, through substitution of two carbon atoms by boron and nitrogen atoms. The methods DFT/B3-LYP/TZVPP and CC2/TZVPP were considered. Firstly, ethane, ethene, and ethyne molecules (based on C atoms and their BN/NB analogs) were studied. These molecules were considered as a reference for the analysis of other molecules with functional groups. These molecules with functional groups are: ethanol, ethanal (and its isomer ethenol), ethanoic acid (and its isomer ethenediol), ethylamine, ethylbenzene, propane, and fluoroethane. We studied the energies, bond length, population analysis, and bond order. The dative bonds (BN) are bigger and weaker than that covalent based on C atoms. The dative bond has π character when the BN bond is double and triple. It is possible to distinguish two different behaviors for BN bonds, one when the functional group is bounded to the B atom, and the other to the N atom. When the functional group is bounded to the B atom, the BN bond is weaker and lengthier than that when the same group is bounded to the N atom. However, the isomer with weaker BN bond is the most stable one.

Graphical abstract

Comparative studies of dative bonds among substituted inorganic molecules, e.g., BN-ethanol, show important differences in terms of length and energy in comparison to organic analogous. There is also a difference when comparing BN or NB molecules (according to witch atom the functional group is bonded to, B or N); bond length, for example, is bigger for BN molecules.


Dative bond Boron–nitrogen bond Covalent x dative bonds Functional group 



This work was supported in part by the FAPESP (Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo), grants: 2010/11385-2; CNPq (Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico), grants: 131879/2014-6; and by CAPES (Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior). We also wish to thank professors Rose Maria Carlos, Nelson H. Morgon, and Jean Marcel R. Gallo for discussions.

Supplementary material

894_2018_3810_MOESM1_ESM.docx (220 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 220 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Chemistry DepartmentUniversidade Federal de São Carlos (UFSCar)São CarlosBrazil

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