Oxidative stress under low oxygen conditions triggers hyperflagellation and motility in the Antarctic bacterium Pseudomonas extremaustralis
Reactive oxygen species and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS), produced in a wide range of physiological process even under low oxygen availability, are among the main stressors found in the environment. Strategies developed to combat them constitute key features in bacterial adaptability and survival. Pseudomonas extremaustralis is a metabolic versatile and stress resistant Antarctic bacterium, able to grow under different oxygen conditions. The present work explores the effect of oxidative stress under low oxygen conditions in P. extremaustralis, by combining RNA deep sequencing analysis and physiological studies. Cells grown under microaerobiosis exhibited more oxidative damage in macromolecules and lower survival rates than under aerobiosis. RNA-seq analysis showed an up-regulation of genes related with oxidative stress response, flagella, chemotaxis and biofilm formation while chaperones and cytochromes were down-regulated. Microaerobic cultures exposed to H2O2 also displayed a hyper-flagellated phenotype coupled with a high motility behavior. Moreover, cells that were subjected to oxidative stress presented increased biofilm formation. Altogether, our results suggest that a higher motile behavior and augmented capacity to form biofilm structures could work in addition to well-known antioxidant enzymes and non-enzymatic ROS scavenging mechanisms to cope with oxidative stress at low oxygen tensions.
KeywordsRNA-seq Biofilms Low oxygen availability Antioxidative enzymes Chemotaxis Reactive oxygen species
PCR Quantitative real-time PCR
Reactive nitrogen species
Reactive oxygen species
Reads per kilobase per million mapped reads
Transmission electron microscopy
This work was supported by the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET) [grant number PIP No. 11220130100450CO]; and the Universidad de Buenos Aires [grant number 20020170100310BA]. MMR, PMT and NIL are career investigators from CONICET (Argentina). ECSV has a graduate student fellowship from CONICET.
ECSV, PMT and NIL conceived and designed the experiments. ECSV, MGL and PMT performed the experiments. ECSV, PMT, MMR and NIL analyzed the data. SM and NIL contributed with reagents/materials/analysis tools. ECSV, PMT and NIL wrote the manuscript.
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Conflict of interest
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