Enzymological characteristics of a novel archaeal dye-linked d-lactate dehydrogenase showing loose binding of FAD
A gene-encoding a dye-linked d-lactate dehydrogenase (Dye-DLDH) homolog was identified in the genome of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermoproteus tenax. The gene was expressed in Escherichia coli and the product was purified to homogeneity. The recombinant protein exhibited highly thermostable Dye-DLDH activity. To date, four types of Dye-DLDH have been identified in hyperthermophilic archaea (in Aeropyrum pernix, Sulfolobus tokodaii, Archaeoglobus fulgidus, and Candidatus Caldiarchaeum subterraneum). The amino acid sequence of T. tenax Dye-DLDH showed the highest similarity (45%) to A. pernix Dye-DLDH, but neither contained a known FAD-binding motif. Nonetheless, both homologs required FAD for enzymatic activity, suggesting that FAD binds loosely to the enzyme and is easily released unlike in other Dye-DLDHs. Our findings indicate that Dye-DLDHs from T. tenax and A. pernix are a novel type of Dye-DLDH characterized by loose binding of FAD.
Keywordsd-Lactate Dye-linked dehydrogenase FAD Hyperthermophilic archaea Thermostable enzyme
2,6-DichloroindophenolHEPES, 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazineethanesulfonic acid
p-Iodonitrotetrazolium violetMTT, 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide
We thank Ms. Manami Oi, Mr. Kazuya Umebayashi, and Ms. Sayuri Yoshihara for the technical assistance. We would like to thank Editage (www.editage.jp) for English language editing.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
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