, Volume 22, Issue 6, pp 955–963 | Cite as

Lipid A structural characterization from the LPS of the Siberian psychro-tolerant Psychrobacter arcticus 273-4 grown at low temperature

  • Angela CasilloEmail author
  • Marcello Ziaco
  • Buko Lindner
  • Ermenegilda Parrilli
  • Dominik Schwudke
  • Aurora Holgado
  • Rudi Beyaert
  • Rosa Lanzetta
  • Maria Luisa Tutino
  • Maria Michela CorsaroEmail author
Original Paper


Psychrobacter arcticus 273-4 is a Gram-negative bacterium isolated from a 20,000-to-30,000-year-old continuously frozen permafrost in the Kolyma region in Siberia. The survival strategies adopted to live at subzero temperatures include all the outer membrane molecules. A strategic involvement in the well-known enhancement of cellular membrane fluidity is attributable to the lipopolysaccharides (LPSs). These molecules covering about the 75% of cellular surface contribute to cold adaptation through structural modifications in their portions. In this work, we elucidated the exact structure of lipid A moiety obtained from the lipopolysaccharide of P. arcticus grown at 4 °C, to mimic the response to the real environment temperatures. The lipid A was obtained from the LPS by mild acid hydrolysis. The lipid A and its partially deacylated derivatives were exhaustively characterized by chemical analysis and by means of ESI Q-Orbitrap mass spectrometry. Moreover, biological assays indicated that P. arcticus 273-4 lipid A may behave as a weak TLR4 agonist.


Psychrobacter arcticus 273-4 Lipid A Mass spectrometry Psychrotolerant Permafrost 

Supplementary material

792_2018_1051_MOESM1_ESM.docx (472 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 471 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Japan KK, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemical SciencesUniversity of Naples “Federico II”NaplesItaly
  2. 2.Division of Bioanalytical ChemistryResearch Center Borstel, Leibniz-Center for Medicine and BiosciencesBorstelGermany
  3. 3.Unit for Molecular Signal Transduction in InflammationVIB-UGent Center for Inflammation Research, VIBGhentBelgium
  4. 4.Department of Biomedical Molecular BiologyGhent UniversityGhentBelgium

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