Child and adolescent psychiatry training in the USA: current pathways

  • Jeffrey HuntEmail author
  • Jared Reichenberg
  • A. Lee Lewis
  • Sansea Jacobson


This manuscript reviews contemporary training in the field of child and adolescent psychiatry in the USA. There are multiple well-defined pathways to becoming a child and adolescent psychiatrist in the USA. The Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education oversees child and adolescent psychiatry training programs and ensures that training programs are meeting the appropriate common and program-specific requirements. The American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology ensures that the individual child and adolescent psychiatrist is competent. There is a substantial shortage of child and adolescent psychiatrists in the US, and efforts are being made to increase the number of and accessibility of trained child and adolescent psychiatrists. Child and adolescent psychiatry training in the United Sates is constantly evolving and future directions include increased engagement of medical students and general psychiatry residents, new abbreviated pathways for training, and international collaboration between programs.


Medical education Child and adolescent psychiatry Residency training 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

There are no conflicts of interest identified by any of the authors.

Ethical approval

No IRB review was required for this manuscript.


  1. 1.
    Sexson SB (2007) Overview of training in the twenty-first century. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am 16(1):1–16 (vii) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Musto D (2002) History of child psychiatry. In: Editor LM (ed) Child and adolescent psychiatry: a comprehensive textbook. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, pp 1446–1449Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Schowalter J (2002) Recruitment, training, and certification in child and adolescent psychiatry in the United States. In: Lewis M (ed) Child and adolescent psychiatry: a comprehensive textbook. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, pp 1429–1433Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Mian AI, Milavic G, Skokauskas N (2015) Child and adolescent psychiatry training: a global perspective. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am 24(4):699–714CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
  6. 6.
  7. 7.
    What to do during a gap year(s) (2019) Retrieved from Accessed 8 July 2019
  8. 8.
    Electronic Residency Application Service-Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 2019 5/5/2019. Accessed 8 July 2019
  9. 9.
    ACGME Program Requirements for Graduate Medical Education in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (Subspecialty of Psychiatry) (2017)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    National Residency Matching Program (NRMP). Accessed 5 Apr 2019
  11. 11.
    About NRMP (2019) Accessed 5 Apr 2019
  12. 12.
    Joshi SV, Stock S, Adams A, Gleason MM, Varley CK (2016) Statement regarding the national resident matching program child and adolescent psychiatry match: a call to uphold the gentlepersons’ agreement. Acad Psychiatry 40(3):552–554CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Psychiatry (2019) ACGME, 2019. Accessed 5 Apr 2019
  14. 14.
    Gray DD et al (2007) Triple board training and new "portals" into child psychiatry training. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am 16(1):55–66 (viii) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gleason MM, Fritz GK (2009) Innovative training in pediatrics, general psychiatry, and child psychiatry: background, outcomes, and experiences. Acad Psychiatry 33(2):99–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Findling RL, Stepanova E (2018) The workforce shortage of child and adolescent psychiatrists: is it time for a different approach? J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 57(5):300–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Guerrero APS, Roberts LW (2017) Snapshots from the cutting edge: innovations in child and adolescent psychiatry training to address workforce shortages. Acad Psychiatry 41(5):571–573CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology Combined Programs and Alternative Pathways. 2019 5/3/2019. Accessed 5 Apr 2019
  19. 19.
    ACGME: The Child & Adolescent Psychiatry Milestone Project. 2015; Available from: Accessed 5 Apr 2019
  20. 20.
  21. 21.
    AACAP Workforce Issues April 2019 5/4/2019. Accessed 5 Apr 2019
  22. 22.
    Medicare Payments for Graduate Medical Education: What Every Medical Student, Resident, and Advisor Needs to Know (2019) Accessed 8 July 2019
  23. 23.
    Ebell MH (2008) Future salary and US residency fill rate revisited. JAMA 300(10):1131–1132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Stein JA et al (2013) Does early mentorship in child and adolescent psychiatry make a difference? The Klingenstein third-generation foundation medical student fellowship program. Acad Psychiatry 37(5):321–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hunt J et al (2008) A 2-year progress report of the AACAP-Harvard Macy teaching scholars program. Acad Psychiatry 32(5):414–419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Horner MS et al (2008) Mentoring increases connectedness and knowledge: a cross-sectional evaluation of two programs in child and adolescent psychiatry. Acad Psychiatry 32(5):420–428CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Adler R et al (2007) Mentoring young researchers: can the Donald J Cohen Fellowships model be applicable and useful to Australasian psychiatry? Australas Psychiatry 15(3):232–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Aacap (2019) AACAP International-Partnering for the World's Children. American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 2019. Accessed 8 July 2019
  29. 29.
    Shanafelt TD, Noseworthy JH (2017) Executive leadership and physician well-being: nine organizational strategies to promote engagement and reduce burnout. Mayo Clin Proc 92(1):129–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Psychiatry and Human BehaviorAlpert Medical School of Brown UniversityEast ProvidenceUSA
  2. 2.Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral SciencesMedical University of South CarolinaCharlestonUSA
  3. 3.Department of PsychiatryWestern Psychiatric Institute & Clinic, UPMCPittsburgUSA

Personalised recommendations