Differential skeletal and dental effects after orthodontic treatment with bite jumping appliance or activator: a retrospective cephalometric study

  • Jan HourfarEmail author
  • Gero Stefan Michael Kinzinger
  • Luisa Euchner
  • Jörg Alexander Lisson
Original Article



The aim of this retrospective cephalometric study was to compare treatment outcomes with “bite jumping appliance” (BJA) or Andresen-Häupl type activator. It especially focused on skeletal and dental structures in patients with class II malocclusion. The study hypothesis was that differences in treatment-related changes would occur between patients treated with BJA or activator.

Material and methods

Pre- and posttreatment lateral cephalograms of 73 patients with a class II malocclusion were analyzed. Thirty-seven patients (22 females, 15 males) received treatment with a BJA (pretreatment age 11.1 ± 1.07 years) and 36 patients (20 females, 16 males) with an activator (pretreatment age 11.3 ± 1.12 years). Treatment time was 14.0 ± 1.8 months with BJA and 12.0 ± 2.0 months with activator. Paired t tests were used for intragroup and t tests for independent samples for intergroup comparisons. Results were considered statistically significant at P < 0.05.


The comparison of sagittal and vertical skeletal changes after BJA and activator treatment did not reveal significant differences. Significant changes occurred for lower incisor inclination (P = 0.0367) and overjet (P = 0.0125) only. The reduction of overjet and proclination of lower incisors were more pronounced in BJA patients.


Both “bite jumping appliance” (BJA) and Andresen-Häupl type activator were able to improve the occlusion of patients with a class II malocclusion. Dental effects were more pronounced for the BJA.

Clinical relevance

Marked lower incisor proclination contributed significantly to overjet correction in BJA patients. This ought to be respected when choosing a removable functional appliance for patients whose lower incisors are already proclined prior to treatment.


Activator Bite jumping appliance Class II correction Removable functional appliance 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors. Ethical approval for this retrospective study was granted by the Ethics Commission of University of Aachen, Germany, No. 171/08.

Informed consent

For this type of study, formal consent is not required.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jan Hourfar
    • 1
    Email author
  • Gero Stefan Michael Kinzinger
    • 1
    • 2
  • Luisa Euchner
    • 3
  • Jörg Alexander Lisson
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of OrthodonticsSaarland UniversityHomburg/SaarGermany
  2. 2.Private PracticeTönisvorstGermany
  3. 3.Private PracticeBaden-BadenGermany

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