Comparison of recovery in pediatric patients: a retrospective study

  • Masanori TsukamotoEmail author
  • Takashi Hitosugi
  • Takeshi Yokoyama
Short Communication



The recovery after general anesthesia is influenced by the choice of inhalational agent. Stimulations might make patient’s agitate. However, the recovery using no touch technique might be safer. In this study, we compared the recovery time, awakening end-tidal concentration, and respiratory complications among inhalational anesthetics in pediatric patients using no touch technique, retrospectively.

Material and methods

The subjects were pediatric patients aged 3 months to 11 years under general anesthesia using sevoflurane, isoflurane, or desflurane. Background, awakening end-tidal concentration, respiratory complications, the time of eye open, body movement, and extubation were recorded.


A total of 170 patients were included in the study. There were no respiratory complications during emergence. Awakening end-tidal concentration in desflurane was 0.98%, sevoflurane (0.39%), and isoflurane (0.25%). In patients received desflurane, the time of body movement, eye open, and extubation were significantly shorter than patients who received other anesthetics (p < 0.05).


The recovery from desflurane was significantly shorter among three inhalational anesthetics with no touch technique. In addition, no airway-related complication occurred.

Clinical relevance

The recovery from desflurane might be useful to predict emergence by end-tidal inhalational concentration.


Anesthesia No touch technique Recovery Pediatric patients 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

For this type of study, formal consent is not required.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Masanori Tsukamoto
    • 1
    Email author
  • Takashi Hitosugi
    • 2
  • Takeshi Yokoyama
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Dental AnesthesiologyKyushu University HospitalFukuokaJapan
  2. 2.Department of Dental Anesthesiology, Faculty of Dental ScienceKyushu UniversityFukuokaJapan

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