Effect of a novel glass ionomer cement containing fluoro-zinc-silicate fillers on biofilm formation and dentin ion incorporation

  • Taisuke Hasegawa
  • Shoji TakenakaEmail author
  • Tatsuya Ohsumi
  • Takako Ida
  • Hayato Ohshima
  • Yutaka Terao
  • Traithawit Naksagoon
  • Takeyasu Maeda
  • Yuichiro Noiri
Original Article



This study is aimed at evaluating the effect of a new glass ionomer cement (GIC) containing fluoro-zinc-silicate fillers on biofilm formation and ion incorporation.

Materials and methods

Streptococcus mutans biofilms were developed on two GIC materials: Caredyne Restore (CD) and Fuji VII (FJ); and hydroxyapatite (HA) for 24 h at 37 °C using a flow cell system. The morphological structure and bacterial viability were analyzed using a confocal laser scanning microscopy. Bacterial adhesion during the initial 2 h was also assessed by viable cell counting. To study the ion incorporation, restored cavities prepared on the root surfaces of human incisors were subjected to the elemental mapping of the zinc and fluoride ions in the GIC-dentin interface using a wavelength-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy electron probe microanalyzer.


Morphological observations revealed that biofilm formation in the CD group was remarkably inhibited compared with the HA and FJ groups, exhibiting sparse, thinner biofilm clusters. The microorganisms adhering to the CD group were significantly inhibited, revealing 2.9 ± 0.4 for CD, 4.9 ± 0.2 for FJ, and 5.4 ± 0.4 log colony-forming units (CFU) for HA. The CD zinc ion incorporation depth was 72.2 ± 8.0 μm. The fluoride penetration of CD was three times deeper than that of FJ; this difference was statistically significant (p < 0.05).


Enhanced by the incorporation of zinc and fluoride ions, the new GIC inhibited biofilm formation by interfering with bacterial adhesion.

Clinical relevance

A novel GIC comprised of fluoro-zinc-silicate fillers may improve clinical outcomes, such as root caries and minimally invasive dentistry.


Fluoro-zinc-silicate fillers Tooth remineralization Oral biofilm Ion incorporation Bacterial adhesion Root surface caries 



This work was supported, in part, by Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (grant no. 15H05021) from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science. This work was also partially supported by the Mitsubishi Foundation and GC Corporation, Tokyo, Japan.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

This research is partially supported by GC Corporation (supplies expenses and publication fee).

Ethical approval

All of the experimental protocols involving the donation of an extracted tooth were approved by the Niigata University Ethics Committee.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


The sponsor had no control for the interpretation, writing, or publication of this work.

Supplementary material

784_2019_2991_MOESM1_ESM.jpg (587 kb)
Supplementary Fig S1 Flow cell system for biofilm formation. The flow cell system consisted of a medium reservoir, a peristaltic pump, and a carboy for waste. Two specimens were placed at either end so that the fluid flow did not interfere. (JPG 587 kb)
784_2019_2991_MOESM2_ESM.jpg (311 kb)
Supplementary Fig S2 Flow cell system for bacterial adhesion test. During the operation time, fresh media was constantly delivered to the bacterial suspension to maintain optimal density. (JPG 311 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Taisuke Hasegawa
    • 1
  • Shoji Takenaka
    • 1
    Email author
  • Tatsuya Ohsumi
    • 1
  • Takako Ida
    • 2
  • Hayato Ohshima
    • 3
  • Yutaka Terao
    • 4
  • Traithawit Naksagoon
    • 1
    • 5
  • Takeyasu Maeda
    • 5
  • Yuichiro Noiri
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Cariology, Operative Dentistry and EndodonticsNiigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental SciencesNiigataJapan
  2. 2.Division of Bio-ProsthodonticsNiigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental SciencesNiigataJapan
  3. 3.Division of Anatomy and Cell Biology of Hard TissueNiigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental SciencesNiigataJapan
  4. 4.Division of Microbiology and Infectious DiseasesNiigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental SciencesNiigataJapan
  5. 5.Research Centre for Advanced Oral ScienceNiigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental SciencesNiigataJapan

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