Effect of a novel glass ionomer cement containing fluoro-zinc-silicate fillers on biofilm formation and dentin ion incorporation
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This study is aimed at evaluating the effect of a new glass ionomer cement (GIC) containing fluoro-zinc-silicate fillers on biofilm formation and ion incorporation.
Materials and methods
Streptococcus mutans biofilms were developed on two GIC materials: Caredyne Restore (CD) and Fuji VII (FJ); and hydroxyapatite (HA) for 24 h at 37 °C using a flow cell system. The morphological structure and bacterial viability were analyzed using a confocal laser scanning microscopy. Bacterial adhesion during the initial 2 h was also assessed by viable cell counting. To study the ion incorporation, restored cavities prepared on the root surfaces of human incisors were subjected to the elemental mapping of the zinc and fluoride ions in the GIC-dentin interface using a wavelength-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy electron probe microanalyzer.
Morphological observations revealed that biofilm formation in the CD group was remarkably inhibited compared with the HA and FJ groups, exhibiting sparse, thinner biofilm clusters. The microorganisms adhering to the CD group were significantly inhibited, revealing 2.9 ± 0.4 for CD, 4.9 ± 0.2 for FJ, and 5.4 ± 0.4 log colony-forming units (CFU) for HA. The CD zinc ion incorporation depth was 72.2 ± 8.0 μm. The fluoride penetration of CD was three times deeper than that of FJ; this difference was statistically significant (p < 0.05).
Enhanced by the incorporation of zinc and fluoride ions, the new GIC inhibited biofilm formation by interfering with bacterial adhesion.
A novel GIC comprised of fluoro-zinc-silicate fillers may improve clinical outcomes, such as root caries and minimally invasive dentistry.
KeywordsFluoro-zinc-silicate fillers Tooth remineralization Oral biofilm Ion incorporation Bacterial adhesion Root surface caries
This work was supported, in part, by Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (grant no. 15H05021) from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science. This work was also partially supported by the Mitsubishi Foundation and GC Corporation, Tokyo, Japan.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
This research is partially supported by GC Corporation (supplies expenses and publication fee).
All of the experimental protocols involving the donation of an extracted tooth were approved by the Niigata University Ethics Committee.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
The sponsor had no control for the interpretation, writing, or publication of this work.
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