Histomorphometrical assessment of vertical alveolar ridge augmentation using extracted tooth roots in the canine

  • Puria Parvini
  • Carla Schliephake
  • Sarah Al-Maawi
  • Katrin Schwarz
  • Robert Sader
  • Shahram Ghanaati
  • Frank SchwarzEmail author
Original Article



To histomorphometrically evaluate the influence of autoclavation on the efficacy of extracted tooth roots (TR) used for vertical alveolar ridge augmentation.

Materials and methods

Upper premolars were randomly assigned to either autoclavation (TR-A) or an untreated control group (TR-C) and used as block grafts for vertical alveolar ridge augmentation in both lower quadrants (n = 4 beagle dogs). Tissue biopsies were obtained after 15 weeks of submerged healing. Histological analyses considered gain in ridge height (GRH), augmented area (AA), and the proportion of mineralized (MT) and non-mineralized tissue (NMT).


TR-C and TR-A grafts were commonly associated with a complete replacement resorption and a marked gain in ridge height. Significant differences between groups were noted for mean GRH [TR-C: 2.35 ± 0.55 vs. TR-A: 2.46 ± 0.21 mm] and AA [TR-C: 11.88 ± 4.31 vs. TR-A: 8.65 ± 1.59 mm2] values. Within AA, both groups revealed a comparable distribution of mean MT and NMT values. The linear regression analysis pointed to a significant correlation between NMT and AA values.


Both TR-C and TR-A grafts supported vertical alveolar ridge augmentation; however, GRH was improved in the TR-A group.

Clinical relevance

TR grafts may serve as a potential alternative for vertical alveolar ridge augmentation.


Animal experiment Alveolar ridge augmentation Tooth transplantation Histological technique 



We kindly appreciate the skills and commitment of Ms. Brigitte Hartig and Ms. Tina Hagena in the preparation of the histological specimens, as well as the competent assistance of Prof. Dr. Martin Sager and Ms. Iris Schrey (ZETT Institute, Heinrich Heine University, Düsseldorf, Germany).


The study was funded by a research grant of the Osteology Foundation, Lucerne, Switzerland.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

The study protocol was approved by the appropriate local authority (Landesamt für Natur und Verbraucherschutz, Recklinghausen, Germany).

Informed consent

For this type of study, formal consent is not required.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Puria Parvini
    • 1
  • Carla Schliephake
    • 1
  • Sarah Al-Maawi
    • 2
  • Katrin Schwarz
    • 3
  • Robert Sader
    • 2
  • Shahram Ghanaati
    • 2
  • Frank Schwarz
    • 1
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Oral Surgery and Implantology, CarolinumGoethe UniversityFrankfurtGermany
  2. 2.Department for Oral, Cranio-Maxillofacial and Facial Plastic SurgeryMedical Center of the Goethe University FrankfurtFrankfurt am MainGermany
  3. 3.Department of Oral SurgeryUniversitätsklinikum DüsseldorfDüsseldorfGermany

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