Microbiological dynamics of red complex bacteria following full-mouth air polishing in periodontally healthy subjects—a randomized clinical pilot study
- 4 Downloads
Suppression of periodontal pathogens in the oral cavity of periodontally healthy individuals may lower the risk for periodontal or periimplant diseases. Therefore, the present study aimed to analyze the effect of supragingival debridement (SD) with adjunctive full mouth glycine powder air polishing (FM-GPAP) on the prevalence of periodontal pathogens in periodontally healthy individuals.
Materials and Methods
Eighty-seven systemically and periodontally healthy intraoral carriers of red complex bacteria, i.e., Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, and Treponema denticola or other periodontal pathogens including Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Prevotella intermedia, and Eikenella corrodens were enrolled into the study and randomly assigned to receive SD with adjunctive FM-GPAP (test, n = 42) or SD alone (control, n = 45). In the first observation period, microbiological samples were obtained prior to, and 2, 5, and 9 days following intervention. If one of these periodontal pathogens could still not be identified, additional microbial sampling was performed after 6 and 12 weeks.
The prevalence of red complex bacteria was significantly reduced in the test compared to the control group following treatment (p = 0.004) and at day 9 (p = 0.031). Intragroup comparison showed a significant (test, p < 0.001; control, p ≤ 0.01) reduction in the mean prevalence in both groups from BL through day 9 with an additional significant intergroup difference (p = 0.048) at day 9. However, the initial strong reduction returned to baseline values after 6 and 12 weeks.
In periodontally healthy carriers of periodontal pathogens, FM-GPAP as an adjunct to SD transiently enhances the suppression of red complex bacteria.
Whether the enhanced suppression of red complex bacteria by adjunctive FM-GPAP prevents the development of periodontitis in periodontally healthy carriers requires further investigations.
KeywordsRed complex bacteria Non-surgical periodontal therapy Full-mouth Glycine powder air polishing Periodontal health Prevention
The follow-up was funded by the authors own departments.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
Thomas Flemmig is an inventor with patents covering the fine-grain, low-abrasive glycine powder used in the present study. To safeguard against the conduct and outcomes of the clinical trial being influenced by a potential conflict of interest, Thomas Flemmig refrained from any sensitive elements of the clinical trial, including patient consent, direct data scoring, statistical analysis of data, and adverse event evaluation and reporting.
No other investigators had any conflicts of interest related to this study.
All procedures performed in this study involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional review board of the Heinrich-Heine-University, Germany (protocol number 3519).
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
- 7.Rafiei M, Kiani F, Sayehmiri K, Sayehmiri F, Tavirani M, Dousti M, Sheikhi A (2018) Prevalence of anaerobic bacteria (P.gingivalis) as major microbial agent in the incidence periodontal diseases by meta-analysis. J Dent (Shiraz) 19:232–242Google Scholar
- 8.Nadkarni MA, Chhour KL, Browne GV, Byun R, Nguyen KA, Chapple CC, Jacques NA, Hunter N (2015) Age-dependent changes in Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella species/phylotypes in healthy gingiva and inflamed/diseased sub-gingival sites. Clin Oral Investig 19:911–919. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00784-014-1301-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 15.Mineoka T, Awano S, Rikimaru T, Kurata H, Yoshida A, Ansai T, Takehara T (2008) Site-specific development of periodontal disease is associated with increased levels of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, and Tannerella forsythia in subgingival plaque. J Periodontol 79:670–676. https://doi.org/10.1902/jop.2008.070398 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 17.Kolenbrander PE, Andersen RN (1989) Inhibition of coaggregation between Fusobacterium nucleatum and Porphyromonas (Bacteroides) gingivalis by lactose and related sugars. Infect Immun 57:3204–3209Google Scholar
- 33.Charles CJ, Charles AH (1994) Periodontal screening and recording. J Calif Dent Assoc 22:43–46Google Scholar
- 34.Ainamo J, Barmes D, Beagrie G, Cutress T, Martin J, Sardo-Infirri J (1982) Development of the World Health Organization (WHO) community periodontal index of treatment needs (CPITN). Int Dent J 32:281–291Google Scholar
- 35.Saxer UPM, R H (1975) Motivation and education. SSO Schweiz Monatsschr Zahnheilkd 85:905–919Google Scholar
- 36.Lange DEP, C H, Eenboom A, Promesberger A (1977) Clinical methods for the objective evaluation of oral hygiene. Dtsch Zahnarztl Z 32:44–47Google Scholar
- 38.Stubbs SL, Brazier JS, O'Neill GL, Duerden BI (1999) PCR targeted to the 16S-23S rRNA gene intergenic spacer region of Clostridium difficile and construction of a library consisting of 116 different PCR ribotypes. J Clin Microbiol 37:461–463Google Scholar
- 45.Hajishengallis G, Liang S, Payne MA, Hashim A, Jotwani R, Eskan MA, McIntosh ML, Alsam A, Kirkwood KL, Lambris JD, Darveau RP, Curtis MA (2011) Low-abundance biofilm species orchestrates inflammatory periodontal disease through the commensal microbiota and complement. Cell Host Microbe 10:497–506CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 54.Matsunaga T, Nakayuki A, Saito Y, Kato A, Noiri Y, Ebisu S, Azakami H (2011) Genomic recombination through plasmid-encoded recombinase enhances hemolytic activity and adherence to epithelial cells in the periodontopathogenic bacterium Eikenella corrodens. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 75:748–751. https://doi.org/10.1271/bbb.100866 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 60.Eberhard J, Jepsen S, Jervoe-Storm PM, Needleman I, Worthington HV (2015) Full-mouth treatment modalities (within 24 hours) for chronic periodontitis in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev:CD004622. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD004622.pub3