Clinical Oral Investigations

, Volume 23, Issue 9, pp 3571–3580 | Cite as

Deep sequencing salivary proteins for periodontitis using proteomics

  • Myung-Seop Shin
  • Yun-Gon Kim
  • Yoo Jin Shin
  • Byoung Joon Ko
  • Sungtae Kim
  • Hyun-Duck KimEmail author
Original Article



Saliva is a bodily fluid transuded from gingival crevice fluid and blood and contains many proteins. Proteins in saliva have been studied as markers for periodontal diseases. Mass spectrometric analysis is applied to investigate biomarker proteins that are related to periodontitis.

Material and methods

Saliva samples were collected from 207 participants including 36 pairs matched for age, sex, and smoking who joined Yangpyeong health cohort. Periodontitis was defined by 2005 5th European guideline. Shotgun proteomics was applied to detect proteins from saliva samples. Principal component analysis and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis for canonical pathway and protein pathway were applied. Protein-protein interaction was also applied. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to verify the candidate protein markers among another matched participants (n = 80).


Shotgun proteomics indicated that salivary S100A8 and S100A9 were candidate biomarkers for periodontitis. ELISA confirmed that both salivary S100A8 and S100A9 were higher in those with periodontitis compared to those without periodontitis (paired-t test, p < 0.05).


Our proteomics data showed that S100A8 and S100A9 in saliva could be candidate biomarkers for periodontitis. The rapid-test-kit using salivary S100A8 and S100A9 will be a practical tool for reducing the risk of periodontitis and promotion of periodontal health.

Clinical relevance

A rapid-test-kit using salivary biomarkers, S100A8 and S100A9, could be utilized by clinicians and individuals for screening periodontitis, which might reduce the morbidity of periodontitis and promote periodontal health.


Proteomics Saliva Periodontitis Protein biomarker Ingenuity Pathway Analysis 



This research was supported by the Bio & Medical Technology Development Program of the National Research Foundation (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science and ICT (NRF-2017M3A9B6062984).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. This cross-sectional study was approved by institutional review board (SNU SOD N0: S-D20170045).

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Supplementary material

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Preventive and Social Dentistry, School of DentistrySeoul National UniversitySeoulSouth Korea
  2. 2.Department of Chemical EngineeringSoongsil UniversitySeoulSouth Korea
  3. 3.New Drug Development CenterOsong Medical Innovation FoundationCheongjuSouth Korea
  4. 4.Department of PeriodontologySeoul National University Dental HospitalSeoulSouth Korea
  5. 5.Dental Research InstituteSeoul National UniversitySeoulSouth Korea

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