Clinical Oral Investigations

, Volume 23, Issue 9, pp 3457–3469 | Cite as

Positive influence of simvastatin used as adjuvant agent for cavity lining

  • Maria Luísa Leite
  • Diana Gabriela Soares
  • Carla Caroline de Oliveira Duque
  • Ester Alves Ferreira Bordini
  • Giovana Anovazzi
  • Fernanda Gonçalves Basso
  • Denise Madalena Palomari Spolidorio
  • Josimeri Hebling
  • Carlos Alberto de Souza CostaEmail author
Original Article



To assess the biological, antimicrobial, and mechanical effects of the treatment of deep dentin with simvastatin (SV) before application of a glass-ionomer cement (GIC).

Materials and methods

Dentin discs were adapted to artificial pulp chambers and SV (2.5 or 1.0 mg/mL) was applied to the occlusal surface, either previously conditioned or not with EDTA (±EDTA). The extracts (culture medium + SV that diffused through dentin) was obtained and then applied to cultured odontoblast-like MDPC-23 cells. Cell viability, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and mineralization nodule (MN) deposition were evaluated. Untreated discs were used as control. The antibacterial activity of SV (2.5 or 1.0 mg/mL) against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus, as well as the bond strength of GIC to dentin in the presence of SV 2.5 mg/mL (±EDTA) were also assessed. The data were analyzed by ANOVA/Tukey tests (α = 5%).


EDTA + SV 2.5 mg/mL significantly enhanced the ALP activity and MN deposition in comparison with the control, without changing in the cell viability (p < 0.05). The association EDTA + SV 2.5 mg/mL + GIC determined the highest ALP and MN values (p < 0.05). SV presented intense antimicrobial activity, and the EDTA dentin conditioning followed by SV application increased bond strength values compared with SV treatment alone (p < 0.05).


SV presents antimicrobial activity and diffuses across conditioned dentin to biostimulate odontoblast-like pulp cells.

Clinical significance

The use of SV as adjuvant agent for indirect pulp capping may biostimulate pulp cells thus preserving vitality and function of the pulp-dentin complex.


Simvastatin Glass-ionomer cement Pulp cells Biostimulation Antimicrobial activity Bond strength 



The work was supported by financial support from the São Paulo Research Foundation/FAPESP (grant # 2015/15635-7) and the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development/CNPq (grant #s 303599/2014-6 and 443153/2014-0).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This study was approval by the Research Ethics Committee of Araraquara School of Dentistry, São Paulo, Brazil (Proc. No.: 51908415.3.0000.5416). All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. This article does not contain any studies with animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maria Luísa Leite
    • 1
  • Diana Gabriela Soares
    • 2
  • Carla Caroline de Oliveira Duque
    • 1
  • Ester Alves Ferreira Bordini
    • 1
  • Giovana Anovazzi
    • 3
  • Fernanda Gonçalves Basso
    • 4
  • Denise Madalena Palomari Spolidorio
    • 4
  • Josimeri Hebling
    • 3
  • Carlos Alberto de Souza Costa
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Dental Materials and Prosthodontics, Araraquara School of DentistrySão Paulo State University (Unesp)AraraquaraBrazil
  2. 2.Department of Operative Dentistry, Endodontics and Dental Materials, Bauru School of DentistryUniversity of São PauloBauruBrazil
  3. 3.Department of Orthodontics and Pediatric Dentistry, Araraquara School of DentistrySão Paulo State University (Unesp)AraraquaraBrazil
  4. 4.Department of Physiology and Pathology, Araraquara School of DentistrySão Paulo State University (Unesp)AraraquaraBrazil

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