Ion release, antimicrobial and physio-mechanical properties of glass ionomer cement containing micro or nanosized hexametaphosphate, and their effect on enamel demineralization
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To evaluate the effects of hexametaphosphate microparticles (mHMP) or nanoparticles (nHMP) incorporated in glass ionomer cement (GIC) on antimicrobial and physico-mechanical properties, fluoride (F) release, and enamel demineralization.
Material and methods
HMP solutions were obtained at concentrations of 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12%, for screening of antimicrobial activity. Next, mHMP or nHMP at 6, 9, and 12% were incorporated into a resin-modified GIC and the antibacterial activity was evaluated. The resistance to diametral tensile and compressive strength, surface hardness, and degree of monomer conversion as well as F and HMP releases of GICs were determined. Furthermore, specimens were attached to enamel blocks and submitted to pH-cycling, and mineral loss was determined. Parametric and non-parametric tests were performed, after checking data homoscedasticity (p < 0.05).
HMP solutions at 6, 9, and 12% demonstrated the best antibacterial activity. GIC containing HMP showed better antibacterial effects at 9 and 12% for nHMP. Regarding F and HMP releases, the highest levels of release occurred for groups containing 9 and 12% nHMP. With the increase in HMP concentration, there was lower mineral loss. However, the incorporation of mHMP or nHMP in GIC reduced values of physico-mechanical properties when compared to the control GIC.
nHMP improves antimicrobial activity and fluoride release, and decreases enamel demineralization, but reduces the physico-mechanical properties of GIC.
The association of GIC/HMP could be an alternative material for patients at high risk for dental caries and could be indicated for low-stress regions or provisional restorations.
KeywordsGlass ionomer cements Phosphates Nanoparticles Polymerization Compressive strength Antibacterial agents
The authors acknowledge the financial support of the scholarship provided by the National Council of Technological and Scientific Development (CNPq 134267/2014-1) and wish to thank Dr. Emerson Rodrigues Camargo for his help in the synthesis of nanosized HMP.
The study was supported by the scholarship provided by the National Council of Technological and Scientific Development (CNPq 134267/2014-1).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants performed by any of the authors.
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