Advertisement

Clinical Oral Investigations

, Volume 23, Issue 3, pp 1341–1347 | Cite as

A comparison of orofacial profiles in 5- and 10-year-old Swedish children with and without cleft lip and/or palate

  • Anna Lena SundellEmail author
  • Agneta Marcusson
Original Article
  • 141 Downloads

Abstract

Objectives

The objectives of this study were to assess orofacial profiles in 5- and 10-year-old children with cleft lip and/or palate (CL/P) compared to controls and to estimate a possible association between orofacial dysfunction and caries frequency.

Materials and methods

A total of 133 children with CL/P (77 5-year-olds and 56 10-year-olds) and 308 controls (142 5-year-olds and 166 10-year-olds) were included in the study. Orofacial function was evaluated with Nordic Orofacial Test-Screening (NOT-S), and caries were scored according to the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS).

Results

The total NOT-S score was higher in children with CL/P compared to controls (mean 3.2 vs 0.9, p < 0.001). The domains frequently scored in CL/P children were speech (82%), face at rest (72%), and facial expression (58%). There was a significantly positive correlation between NOT-S scores and caries frequency.

Conclusions

Children with CL/P have impaired orofacial function compared to controls. There seems to be a correlation between orofacial function and caries.

Clinical relevance

Impaired orofacial function seen in children with CL/P can be one of many risk factors for caries development, and it is suggested to be a part of caries risk assessment.

Keywords

Children Cleft lip and/or palate Orofacial function NOT-S Caries 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We are grateful to all children and parents participating in our research. Thanks to the cleft teams in Gothenburg and Linköping and all the public dental clinics involved. We will also thank Anna-Karin Nilsson for assisting with data collection.

Authors’ contributions

All authors were involved in writing and reviewing the manuscript. Anna Lena Sundell collected the data and wrote the first draft of the manuscript.

Funding

This work was supported by Region Jönköping County, Medical Research Council of Southeast Sweden (FORSS) and Academy for Health and Care Region Jönköping County (Futurum).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors, Anna Lena Sundell and Agneta Marcusson, report no conflicts of interest. The authors alone are responsible for the content and writing of the paper.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all caregivers to the children included in the study.

References

  1. 1.
    Barlow SM, Trotman CA, Chu SY, Lee J (2012) Modification of perioral stiffness in patients with repaired cleft lip and palate. Cleft Palate Craniofac J 49:524–529.  https://doi.org/10.1597/10-092 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Trotman CA, Barlow SM, Faraway JJ (2007) Functional outcomes of cleft lip surgery. Part III: measurement of lip forces. Cleft Palate Craniofac J 44:617–623.  https://doi.org/10.1597/06-138.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Trotman CA, Phillips C, Essick GK, Faraway JJ, Barlow SM, Losken HW, van Aalst J, Rogers L (2007) Functional outcomes of cleft lip surgery. Part I: study design and surgeon ratings of lip disability and need for lip revision. Cleft Palate Craniofac J 44:598–606.  https://doi.org/10.1597/06-124.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Essick GK, Dorion C, Rumley S, Rogers L, Young M, Trotman CA (2005) Report of altered sensation in patients with cleft lip. Cleft Palate Craniofac J 42:178–184.  https://doi.org/10.1597/03-124.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Trotman CA, Faraway J, Soltmann R, Hartman T, van Aalst J (2013) Facial soft tissue dynamics before and after primary lip repair. Cleft Palate Craniofac J 50:315–322.  https://doi.org/10.1597/12-080 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Rutjens CA, Spauwen PH, van Lieshout PH (2001) Lip movement in patients with a history of unilateral cleft lip. Cleft Palate Craniofac J 38:468–475.  https://doi.org/10.1597/1545-1569(2001)038<0468:LMIPWA>2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Flynn T, Lohmander A (2014) A longitudinal study of hearing and middle ear status in individuals with UCLP. Otol Neurotol 35:989–996.  https://doi.org/10.1097/MAO.0000000000000429 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hasslöf P, Twetman S (2007) Caries prevalence in children with cleft lip and palate--a systematic review of case-control studies. Int J Paediatr Dent 17:313–319.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-263X.2007.00847.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Antonarakis GS, Palaska PK, Herzog G (2013) Caries prevalence in non-syndromic patients with cleft lip and/or palate: a meta-analysis. Caries Res 47:406–413.  https://doi.org/10.1159/000349911 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sundell AL, Nilsson AK, Ullbro C, Twetman S, Marcusson A (2016) Caries prevalence and enamel defects in 5- and 10-year-old children with cleft lip and/or palate: a case-control study. Acta Odontol Scand 74:90–95.  https://doi.org/10.3109/00016357.2015.1044562 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Dahllöf G, Ussisoo-Joandi R, Ideberg M, Modéer T (1989) Caries, gingivitis, and dental abnormalities in preschool children with cleft lip and/or palate. Cleft Palate J 26:233–237Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ahluwalia M, Brailsford SR, Tarelli E, Gilbert SC, Clark DT, Barnard K, Beighton D (2004) Dental caries, oral hygiene, and oral clearance in children with craniofacial disorders. J Dent Res 83:175–179.  https://doi.org/10.1177/154405910408300218 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sundell AL, Ullbro C, Marcusson A, Twetman S (2015) Comparing caries risk profiles between 5- and 10- year-old children with cleft lip and/or palate and non-cleft controls. BMC Oral Health 15:85.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12903-015-0067-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Chopra A, Lakhanpal M, Rao NC, Gupta N, Vashisth S (2014) Oral health in 4-6 years children with cleft lip/palate: a case control study. N Am J Med Sci 6:266–269.  https://doi.org/10.4103/1947-2714.134371 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hairfield WM, Warren DW, Seaton DL (1988) Prevalence of mouthbreathing in cleft lip and palate. Cleft Palate J 25:135–138Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Montes ABM, de Oliveira TM, Gaviao MBD, de Souza Barbosa T (2018) Occlusal, chewing, and tasting characteristics associated with orofacial dysfunctions in children with unilateral cleft lip and palate: a case-control study. Clin Oral Investig 22:941–950.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00784-017-2173-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bakke M, Bergendal B, McAllister A, Sjögreen L, Asten P (2007) Development and evaluation of a comprehensive screening for orofacial dysfunction. Swed Dent J 31:75–84Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Millard DR Jr (1964) Rotation-advancement principle in cleft lip closure. Cleft Palate J 12:246–252Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Mulliken JB (2001) Primary repair of bilateral cleft lip and nasal deformity. Plast Reconstr Surg 1(181–194):195–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Sommerlad BC (2003) A technique for cleft palate repair. Plast Reconstr Surg 6:1542–1548.  https://doi.org/10.1097/01.PRS.0000085599.84458.D2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Lilja J, Friede H, Johanson J (1996) Changing philosophy of surgery of the cleft lip and palate in Göteborg, Sweden. In: Berkowitz S (ed) Cleft lip and palate perspectives on management, vol 2. Singular Publishing, San Diego, pp 155–170Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Pitts NB, Ekstrand KR, ICDAS Foundation (2013) International caries detection and assessment system (ICDAS) and its international caries classification and management system (ICCMS)—methods for staging of the caries process and enabling dentists to manage caries. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 41:41–52.  https://doi.org/10.1111/cdoe.12025 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ismail AI, Sohn W, Tellez M, Amaya A, Sen A, Hasson H, Pitts NB (2007) The international caries detection and assessment system (ICDAS): an integrated system for measuring dental caries. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 35:170–178.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0528.2007.00347.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    McAllister A, Hammarström Lundeborg I (2014) Oral sensorimotor functions in typically developing children 3 to 8 years old, assessed by the Nordic Orofacial test, NOT_S. J Med Speech Lang Pathol 21(1):51–59Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Strini PJ, Strini PJ, De Souza Barbosa T, Duarte Gaviao MB (2011) Assessment of orofacial dysfunctions, salivary cortisol levels and oral health related quality of life (ORHQoL) in young adults. Arch Oral Biol 56:1521–1527.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.archoralbio.2011.06.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Cheng HY, Murdoch BE, Goozee JV, Scott D (2007) Physiologic development of tongue-jaw coordination from childhood to adulthood. J Speech Lang Hear Res 50:352–360.  https://doi.org/10.1044/1092-4388 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Smith A, Zelaznik HN (2004) Development of functional synergies for speech motor coordination in childhood and adolescence. Dev Psychobiol 45:22–33.  https://doi.org/10.1002/dev.20009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Trotman CA, Faraway JJ, Losken HW, van Aalst JA (2007) Functional outcomes of cleft lip surgery. Part II: quantification of nasolabial movement. Cleft Palate Craniofac J 44:607–616.  https://doi.org/10.1597/06-125.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Nyberg J, Peterson P, Lohmander A (2014) Speech outcomes at age 5 and 10 years in unilateral cleft lip and palate after one-stage palatal repair with minimal incision technique - a longitudinal perspective. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 78:1662–1670.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijporl.2014.07.016 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Klintö K, Falk E, Wilhelmsson S, Schonmeyr B, Becker M (2018) Speech in 5-year-olds with cleft palate with or without cleft lip treated with primary palatal surgery with muscle reconstruction according to Sommerlad. Cleft Palate Craniofac.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1055665618768541
  31. 31.
    Bosnjak A, Vucicevic-Boras V, Miletic I, Bozic D, Vukelja M (2002) Incidence of oral habits in children with mixed dentition. J Oral Rehabil 29:902–905CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Barsi PC, Ribeiro da Silva T, Costa B, da Silva Dalben G (2013) Prevalence of oral habits in children with cleft lip and palate. Plast Surg Int 2013:247908–247904.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/247908 Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Gabre P, Norrman C, Birkhed D (2005) Oral sugar clearance in individuals with oral motor dysfunctions. Caries Res 39:357–362.  https://doi.org/10.1159/000086841 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Dawes C (2008) Salivary flow patterns and the health of hard and soft oral tissues. J Am Dent Assoc 139:18–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Paediatric DentistryInstitute for Postgraduate Dental EducationJönköpingSweden
  2. 2.Dentofacial Orthopaedics, Maxillofacial UnitLinköping University HospitalLinköpingSweden

Personalised recommendations