Intratubular decontamination ability and physicochemical properties of calcium hydroxide pastes
This in vitro study compared the penetration, pH, calcium ion release, solubility, and intradentinal decontamination capacity of calcium hydroxide (CH) pastes with different vehicles and additives.
Materials and methods
Infected standard bovine dentine contaminated with Enterococcus faecalis were treated with propolis extract, chlorhexidine, and camphorated paramonochlorophenol (CPMC) loaded in CH paste for the bacterial viability evaluation made by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and microbiological culture. Beside this, 50 acrylic teeth were filled with the previously mentioned pastes to evaluate the pH and calcium ion release (pHmeter and atomic absorption spectrophotometer at time intervals of 7, 15, and 30 days) and solubility (micro-computed tomographic imaging before and after 15 days).
After treatment, all samples decreased intra-dentinal contamination, specially, the CH paste with CPMC. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups when evaluating the intra-canal paste penetration. In the pH measurements, CH with distilled water showed the smallest pH values. Regardless the solubility percentage of the pastes, the paste of CH + PG presented the highest values.
The vehicles and additives tested may increase CH antimicrobial effect, but with small differences. In general, all CH pastes tested here were effective in reducing Enterococcus faecalis and were similar in the penetration, pH, calcium ion release, and solubility of calcium hydroxide when compared to distilled water.
The use of calcium hydroxide pastes as intracanal medication with an aqueous or viscous vehicle, as propylene glycol, can be useful, since all formulations of the tested pastes resulted in great bacterial reduction inside root canals.
KeywordsEnterococcus faecalis Calcium hydroxide Microscopy Propolis Chlorhexidine Camphor paramonochlorophenol
This work was supported by Fundação de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo - FAPESP (2010/20186-3 and 2013/26120-2) and Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior - CAPES.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
Author Thais Cristina Pereira received research grants from FAPESP and CAPES.
Author Layla Reginna Silva Munhoz de Vasconcelos declares that she has no conflict of interest.
Author Márcia Sirlene Zardin Graef declares that she has no conflict of interest.
Author Maria Cristina Marcucci Ribeiro declares that she has no conflict of interest.
Author Marco Antonio Hungaro Duarte declares that he has no conflict of interest.
Author Flaviana Bombarda de Andrade declares that she has no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
For this type of study, formal consent is not required.
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