Impact of cognitive function on oral perception in independently living older people

  • Motoyoshi Fukutake
  • Taiji Ogawa
  • Kazunori Ikebe
  • Yusuke Mihara
  • Chisato Inomata
  • Hajime Takeshita
  • Kenichi Matsuda
  • Kodai Hatta
  • Yasuyuki Gondo
  • Yukie Masui
  • Hiroki Inagaki
  • Yasumichi Arai
  • Kei Kamide
  • Tatsuro Ishizaki
  • Yoshinobu Maeda
Original Article
  • 60 Downloads

Abstract

Objectives

Oral tactile perception is important for better mastication, appetite, and enjoyment of food. However, previous investigations have not utilized comprehensible variables thought to have negative effect on oral perception, including aging, denture wearing, and cognitive function. The aim of this study was to elucidate the impact of cognitive function on oral perception in independently living older individuals.

Materials and methods

The study sample was comprised of 987 participants (466 males, 521 females; age 69–71 years). Oral examinations, assessments of cognitive function in preclinical level by Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA)-J, and determination of oral stereognostic ability as an indicator of oral perception were performed. Related variables were selected by univariate analyses; then, multivariate logistic regression model analysis was conducted.

Results

Univariate analyses revealed that number of teeth, removable dentures usage, and cognitive function respectively had a significant relationship with stereognostic score. Next, the subjects were classified into good and poor perception groups (lowest 17.4%) according to oral stereognostic ability. Logistic regression analysis revealed that lower cognitive function was significantly associated with poor oral perception (OR = 0.934, p = 0.017) after controlling for other variables.

Conclusions

Cognitive decline even in preclinical stage was associated with reduced oral perception after controlling for gender, tooth number and denture use in independent living older people.

Clinical relevance

This study suggested that preclinical level of change in cognitive function affected oral perception. Dental practitioners and caregivers may need to pay attention to reduced oral perception among older people even if they do not have trouble in daily life.

Keywords

Oral perception Cognitive function Older adults Multiple logistic regression analysis 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors thank all of the participants who were involved in this study. We also express our appreciation to Drs. Enoki K. and Tada S. for data collection.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

All the authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

References

  1. 1.
    Ikebe K, Amemiya M, Morii K, Matsuda K, Furuya-Yoshinaka M, Yoshinaka M, Nokubi T (2007) Association between oral stereognostic ability and masticatory performance in aged complete denture wearers. Int J Prosthodont 20:245–250PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Calhoun KH, Gibson B, Hartley L, Minton J, Hokanson JA (1992) Age-related changes in oral sensation. Laryngoscope 102:109–116CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kawagishi S, Kou F, Yoshino K, Tanaka T, Masumi S (2009) Decrease in stereognostic ability of the tongue with age. J Oral Rehabil 36:872–879CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Yoshinaka M, Ikebe K, Uota M, Ogawa T, Okada T, Inomata C, Takeshita H, Mihara Y, Gondo Y, Masui Y, Kamide K, Arai Y, Takahashi R, Maeda Y (2016) Age and sex differences in the taste sensitivity of young adult, young-old and old-old Japanese. Geriatr Gerontol Int 16:1281–1288CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Grasso JE, Catalanatto FA (1979) The effects of age and full palatal coverage on oral stereognostic ability. J Prosthet Dent 41:215–219CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Jacobs R, Bou Serhal C, van Steenberghe D (1998) Oral stereognosis: a review of the literature. Clin Oral Investig 2:3–10CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Chen CC, Essick GK, Kelly DG, Young MG, Nestor JM, Masse B (1995) Gender-, side- and site-dependent variations in human perioral spatial resolution. Arch Oral Biol 40:539–548CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Smith PW, McCord JF (2002) Oral stereognostic ability in edentulous and dentate individuals. Eur J Prosthodont Restor Dent 10:53–56PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Garrett NR, Kapur KK, Jochen DG (1994) Oral stereognostic ability and masticatory performance in denture wearers. Int J Prosthodont 7:567–573PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lin MY, Gutierrez PR, Stone KL, Yaffe K, Ensrud KE, Fink HA, Sarkisian CA, Coleman AL, Mangione CM (2004) Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group. Vision impairment and combined vision and hearing impairment predict cognitive and functional decline in older women. J Am Geriatr Soc 52:1996–2002CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Panza F, Solfrizzi V, Logroscino G (2015) Age-related hearing impairment—a risk factor and frailty marker for dementia and AD. Nat Rev Neurol 11:166–175CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Engelen L, Prinz JF, Bosman F (2002) The influence of density and material on oral perception of ball size with and without palatal coverage. Arch Oral Biol 47:197–201CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Fujiwara Y, Suzuki H, Yasunaga M, Sugiyama M, Ijuin M, Sakuma N, Inagaki H, Iwasa H, Ura C, Yatomi N, Ishii K, Tokumaru AM, Homma A, Nasreddine Z, Shinkai S (2010) Brief screening tool for mild cognitive impairment in older Japanese: validation of the Japanese version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment. Geriatr Gerontol Int 10:225–232CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Nasreddine ZS, Phillips NA, Bédirian V, Charbonneau S, Whitehead V, Collin I, Cummings JL, Chertkow H (2005) The Montreal Cognitive Assessment, MoCA: a brief screening tool for mild cognitive impairment. J Am Geriatr Soc 53:695–699CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hirano K, Hirano S, Hayakawa I (2004) The role of oral sensorimotor function in masticatory ability. J Oral Rehabil 31:199–205CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ikebe K, Amemiya M, Morii K, Matsuda K, Furuya-Yoshinaka M, Nokubi T (2007) Comparison of oral stereognosis in relation to age and the use of complete dentures. J Oral Rehabil 34:345–350CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ishizaki T, Watanabe S, Suzuki T, Shibata H, Huga H (2000) Predictors for functional decline among nondisabled older Japanese living in a community during a 3-year follow-up. J Am Geriatr Soc 48:1424–1429CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Wu B, Fillenbaum GG, Plassman BL, Guo L (2016) Association between oral health and cognitive status: a systematic review. J Am Geriatr Soc 64:739–751CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Engelan L, van der Bilt A, Bosman F (2004) Relationship between oral sensitivity and masticatory performance. J Dent Res 83:388–392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kaiba Y, Hirano S, Hayakawa I (2006) Palatal coverage disturbance in masticatory function. J Med Dent Sci 53:1–6PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Motoyoshi Fukutake
    • 1
  • Taiji Ogawa
    • 1
  • Kazunori Ikebe
    • 1
  • Yusuke Mihara
    • 1
  • Chisato Inomata
    • 1
  • Hajime Takeshita
    • 1
  • Kenichi Matsuda
    • 1
  • Kodai Hatta
    • 1
  • Yasuyuki Gondo
    • 2
  • Yukie Masui
    • 3
  • Hiroki Inagaki
    • 3
  • Yasumichi Arai
    • 4
  • Kei Kamide
    • 5
  • Tatsuro Ishizaki
    • 3
  • Yoshinobu Maeda
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Prosthodontics, Gerodontology and Oral RehabilitationOsaka University Graduate School of DentistrySuitaJapan
  2. 2.Department of Clinical Thanatology and Geriatric Behavioral ScienceOsaka University Graduate School of Human SciencesSuitaJapan
  3. 3.Tokyo Metropolitan Geriatric Hospital and Institute of GerontologyItabashiJapan
  4. 4.Division of Geriatric Medicine, Department of Internal MedicineKeio University School of MedicineShinjukuJapan
  5. 5.Department of Geriatric Medicine and NephrologyOsaka University Graduate School of MedicineSuitaJapan

Personalised recommendations