Genotoxic effects in oral mucosal cells caused by the use of orthodontic fixed appliances in patients after short and long periods of treatment
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This study aimed to evaluate the genotoxic effects in the oral epithelial cells of patients undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment and to compare these to a control group without treatment. The null hypothesis to be tested is that corrective orthodontic treatment at different periods does not cause genotoxic effects in patients.
Material and methods
An observational cross-sectional study including 74 patients enrolled in corrective orthodontic treatment and 21 control patients, between 11 and 35 years of age, of both genders, participated in the research. Patients undergoing treatment were divided into four treatment groups differentiated by treatment periods: G1, n = 21 (1 month to 12 months); G2, n = 21 (13 to 24 months); G3, n = 23 (25 to 48 months); and G4, n = 9 (over 48 months). Cells were collected by scraping the internal side of the cheek and subsequently placed in tubes containing 0.9% sodium chloride solution. The sample underwent evaluation for genotoxic effects by means of the micronucleus test (MNT). Bivariate analyses were performed using parametric tests (t test or ANOVA) and nonparametric tests (Chi-square test, Kruskal-Wallis test, Dunn post-test). The adopted level of significance was 5%.
Statistically significant differences for any of the genotoxic abnormalities (binucleated, trinucleated, karyolysis, piknosis, nuclear buds) were not found except for karyolysis, which was higher in the control group than in G4 (p < 0.05).
This study did not demonstrate evidence of genotoxic effects even after long periods of corrective orthodontic treatment.
This study explores genotoxic effects in fixed orthodontic patients.
KeywordsOrthodontic appliances Genetic Cytogenetic Test of micronucleus
María Gabriela Flores Bracho conducted a review of literature, wrote the manuscript, collected the data, and did the experimental procedures of the project.
Catarina Satie Takahashi supervised all the experimental procedures of the project.
Willian Orlando Castillo supervised all the experimental procedures of the project.
Maria Conceição Pereira Saraiva designed the study and performed the statistical analyses.
Erika Calvano Küchler organized the data and wrote the manuscript.
Mírian Aiko Nakane Matsumoto collaborated in the selection of experimental subjects.
José Tarcísio Lima Ferreira collaborated in the selection of experimental subjects. Fabio Lourenço Romano and Paulo Nelson-Filho conceived the study and supervised all aspects of its implementation.
All authors contributed to the interpretation of results and manuscript review.
The work was supported by CAPES-Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel-Brazilian federal government.
Compliance with ethical standards
The Research Ethics Committee (CAAE 35905914.1.0000.5419) approved this project. The patients agreed to participate in the study and they, or their guardians, signed an informed consent.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
The Research Ethics Committee (CAAE 35905914.1.0000.5419) approved this project. All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants that were included in the study.
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